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intro to Pharm

3 most important characteristics of any drug effectiveness safety selectivity
is it possible to have a selective drug? no. because all drugs have side effects
four phases of pharmacokenetics absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
define pharmacodynamics nature and intensity of the response that the drug has on the body
which member of the health care team is most likely to observe and evaluate and intervene if required the nurse
3 most importnat goals of pre-admnistration assessment evaluate effects, identify high risk patients, assess for self care
what factors can predispose an indvicual to adverse reactions from drugs? allergies, pregnancy, age, genetics, pathological disease (kidney and liver)
what measures help reduce adverse reactions of medication administration a through patient history to identify those at high-risk and patient education
what is a blinded study participants do not know if they belong to control or test group
what type of research is required to assess drug therapies? the randomized controlled trial is required for all new medications
which ammendment strengthened drug regulation after the Thalidomide tragedy in Europe? The harris-Kefauver Ammendment to the FDA and the Cosmetic Act of 1962
what is the purpose of having a trade name? trade names are easy to recall and pronounce; good for marketing
what is one of the problems wiht trade names using 2 brand named drugs with the same ingredient may lead to overdosing
what are some limitations in the testing process used to bring drugs to market? information on women and children are limited new drugs likely to have adverse effects not detected in clinical trials
cost to develop a new drug in the US can exceed 800 million dollars
four drugs that cuase the most adverse reactions blood thinners, insulin, digoxin, sulfonureas
what setting do most drug errors occur? outpatient, ambulatory
which is correct? a. 2.0 mg b. 0.2mg c. .2 mg d. 2mg b and d
MS (morphine sulfate), MSO4 and MSGO4, > (greater than), < (less than), abbreviations for drug names, apothecary units, @, Cc, ug....all have one thing in common. What is it? abbreviations on the "Do Not Use List"
which scheduled drugs can NP's prescribe in the state of Florida? none
schedule II drugs codeine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, dextroamphetamine
schedule III drugs buprenoprhine, anabolic steroids
schedule IV drugs benzodiazepines
what schedule drugs require a hard copy of Rx? (cannot be called in) schedule II
equal active ingredients, dosage form, identical disintegration, rate of absorption, efficacy, and safety are features of what type of drugs generic bioequivalent drugs
a warning that medical sutudies indicate that the drug carries a significant risk of serious or life-threatening adverse effects is known as _______ black box warning
examples of drugs with black box warning SSRI's, antipsychotics, metformin, salmeterol
which class of antihypertensives are recommended for African Americans? diuretics, then CCB's
activity of CYP 2D6 is (higher/ lower) in Asians and may require (higher/ lower) doses of drugs utilizing this metabolizing enzyme? lower, lower