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Intro. to A&P terms

BIO 1107

TermDefinition
ventral cavity entire front cavity including thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
abdominopelvic cavity abdominal and pelvic cavities referred to together
pleural cavities either side of thoracic cavity containing the lungs
mediastinum center of thoracic cavity, containing the esophagus, trachea, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid, & thymus glands
pericardial cavity center of mediastinum, containing the heart
dorsal cavity entire back cavity; contains cranial and spinal (vertebral) cavities
spinal/vertebral cavity/canal follows bones of back, contains the spinal cord
cranial cavity region created by the bones of the skull, contains the brain
right hypochondriac region upper right side of abdominopelvic cavity, contains mainly liver and gallbladder and portions of transverse colon (large intestine)
left hypochondriac region upper left side of abdominopelvic cavity, containing portion of stomach and transverse colon (large intestine), spleen
epigastric region upper center region of abdominopelvic cavity, containing portions of stomach, liver, heart and transverse colon
right lumbar region middle right side of abdominopelvic cavity, containing ascending colon, small intestines
left lumbar region middle left side of abdominopelvic cavity, containing descending colon, small intestines
umbilical region near belly button, cavity contains small intestines
right iliac region bottom right (by hip) of abdominopelvic cavity, containing ascending colon, appendix
left iliac region bottom left (by hip) of abdominopelvic cavity, containing descending colon, portion of rectum
hypogastric region Bottom middle of abdominopelvic cavity, containing reproductive organs, urinary bladder, small intestines, rectum
sagittal/median plane separates right from left
Transverse/horizontal plane separates top from bottom
Coronal/frontal plane separates front from back
cranial toward the head
caudal toward the tail
medial toward the midline of the body
lateral away from the midline of the body
proximal closer to the trunk/torso
distal further from the trunk/torso
superficial/external closer to the surface/shallow
deep/internal further from the surface/further inside the body
Parietal membranes line the cavity wall
Visceral membranes attach to the surface of organs
Serous Fluid watery fluid that bathes most organs (secreted by some membranes) fills in any space between a visceral and parietal membrane
Peritoneal/Peritoneum membrane lining cavity and organs of abdominopelvic cavity
responsiveness ability to sense changes in environment and respond to stimuli
respiration process of using oxygen (or other elements) to release energy from food
absorption passage of substances through membranes
assimilation chemically altering substances that enter the body
excretion elimination of waste products
digestion break down of food for energy
circulation movement of substances throughout body
homeostasis the maintenance of a stable, constant internal environment through negative feedback mechanisms
receptors (sense organs & nerve endings) receives information about the internal conditions and how they differ from the norm (set point)
effectors respond to negative feedback by altering internal conditions & returning the body to normal
muscular system function produces movement
urinary system function removes wastes (urine), balances electrolyte (salt) and water levels
respiratory system function takes in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide (process called respiration)
circulatory/cardiovascular system function transports substances throughout the internal body
Integumentary system function protection and homeostasis
nervous system function communication between body systems
endocrine system function "middle man" secretes proper hormones based on information received from the brain to maintain homeostasis and life processes
reproductive system function producing offspring
digestive system function break down and absorb nutrients as well as remove waste
skeletal system function support, movement, protection
lymphatic system function blood filtering & immune defense
muscular system organs muscles
urinary system organs kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
respiratory system organs nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, diaphragm, and lungs
circulatory/cardiovascular system organs heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood
Integumentary system organs skin, hair & nails
nervous system organs brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs
endocrine system organs glands: pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland
reproductive system organs scrotum, testes, epididymus, vas deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, and urethra, ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes, vagina, clitoris, vulva
digestive system organs mouth, tongue, teeth, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, small/large intestines
skeletal system organs bones
lymphatic system organs White blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, lymph tissues
anatomy study of the shape and structure of an organism’s body and the relationship of one body part to another
physiology study of the functions of each body part including the chemical reactions that occur and how they coordinate to form a living organism
Cytology microscopic branch of anatomy focused on cells
Histology microscopic branch of anatomy focused on tissues and organs
Gross anatomy the study of large and easily observable structures
Developmental Anatomy studies growth and development of an organism through its lifetime.
biology study of life
Comparative Anatomy human body parts are studied with regard to similarities and differences to other animals in the animal kingdom.
Systemic Anatomy study of the structure and function of various parts that comprise a particular organ system.
atom smallest unit of matter
molecule two or more atoms
macromolecule 1,000s of atoms chemically combined
organelle subunit of a cell will a specific job within the cell
cell smallest functional unit of life; groups of organelles working together
tissue groups of cells with similar shape and function working together
organ groups of tissues with a vital role in the body
system groups of organs that work together
organism a living thing made up of many organ systems working together
Created by: kcarpenter