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Antimicrobials - Q/A

What are the principle bacterial targets for antimicrobials? 1) Cell wall peptidoglycan 2) Machinery of protein synthesis 3) Outer cell membrane 4) Enzymes of bacterial nucleic acid metabolism 5) Enzymes involved in folic acid symtheiss
What are some drugs that act on cell wall peptidoglycan? fosfomycin, bacitracin, vancomycin, penicillin and other B-lactams
What are some drugs that act on the ribosome and other aspects of protein synthesis? erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, spectinomycin
What are some drugs act on the 30S ribosome? clindamycin, erythromycin
What are some drugs act on the 50S ribosome? tetracycline, aminoglycosides
What are some drugs act on RNA synthesis? rifampin, rifabutin
What are some drugs act on DNA replication? metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and other fluorquinolones
What are some drugs act on folic acid synthesis? sulfonamides, trimethoprim
What are some drugs that act on the cell membrane? polymixin B, colistin
What are the four major mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance? 1) Change in the drug target 2) Production of an enzyme that modifies or inactivates the agent 3) Reduced accumulation of the agent 4) Loss of a pathway involved in drug activation
Why is optimal usage of antimicrobial so important? Usage selects for resistance
What are some examples of in vitro susceptibility tests? broth dilution, disc diffusion
Which is more important, MIC-50 or MIC-90? MIC-90 is more useful than the MIC-50 value in the initial selection of an antibiotic
What is the most significant mechanism of resistance to penicillin? Ability of B-lactamases to hydrolyse the B-lactam ring
Created by: AlneciaPHS