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Blood NRTC

Chapter 13

What is the pigment that gives blood it's red color Hemoglobin
What blood cell transports oxygen RBC- Red Blood Cell
What gives the RBC it's ability to transport oxygen and Iron It's disk shape... Because it contains a small dip in the middle that's great for diffusion of the molecules into it.
What is the name of the disease characterized by a sickle shaped RBC Sickle cell anemia
Why does the sickle shaped RBC cause anemia It doesn't transport Iron well
Why is sickle cell more prevalent in African Americans It is genetic ( it requires the trait from both parents to be passed down to have offspring be affected by it)
What are the 4 ribbon-like protein chains found in hemoglobin called Globins
What is the molecule, that contains iron, which binds to globin Heme
How does hemoglobin bind and carry oxygen One oxygen molecule binds to each heme( there are 4 hemes in each hemoglobin)
What is the study of blood Hematology
What is a hematocrit Measure of RBC - and concentration of hemoglobin
Is blood bright red or deep maroon when it is oxygenated Bright red
What molecule is crucial for the production of hemoglobin Iron
About how long does the RBC live 120 days
The way the negative feedback loop is triggered Oxygen levels fall
When the kidneys detect low oxygen they respond by secreting what hormone Erythropoietin ( EPO)
What does EPO stimulate Bonne marrow
When stimulated by EPO what does the marrow do Begins the process of making new erythrocytes
Name of an immature erythrocyte Reticulocyte
How many days does it take for a erythrocyte to mature One or two days
After the Erythrocyte is mature it causes the oxygen level in circulation to do what Increase
What happens when the O2 levels rise Kidneys stop secreting EPO and RBC production decreases
Erythropoiesis is what process Producing new erythrocytes
Moving to higher altitude can do what to RBC count Increase the count
How many days does it take for the process of erythropoiesis 3-5 days
As the aged RBC passes threw the spleen what happens to it It begins to break down
What are two organs involved in breakdown of old RBC Liver and spleen
What is hemoglobin broken down into Globin and heme
What is globin broken down into Amino acids... That are later used for energy
What 2 things does heme break down into Iron and bilirubin
Where are the iron molecules transported to when a RBC is broken down To the Marrow to be used to create new hemoglobin
When heme is broken down... What happens to the bilirubin it contained It is excreted into the intestines as part of bile
What is a buildup of bilirubin Jaundice
Jaundice can result from a buildup of bilirubin and what other complication or disfunction Liver problem
Polycemia is Too many RBC circulating
What is a big risk with polycemia Thick blood could lead to clots... Cells die... Possible necrosis= lots of pain
What is a CBC Complete blood count... RBC WBC And platelet count
What is a CBC with differentiation It if a CBC plus amount of Kinds of WBC you have... Helps Dr. diagnose disease
Abnormal liver function can interfere with.... Blood clotting
To stop bleeding more quickly, from a wound, you can massage ... The tissues surrounding the wound.
Whats the next thing that happens after a blood clot forms in a wound? The platelets contract, pulling the edges of the damaged vessel closer together.
After a damaged vessel has healed what process happens next? Fibrinolysis
Process in which plasmin works to dissolve the fibrin meshwork, and the blood clots break up? Fibrinolysis
The inner lining of undamaged blood vessels that are very smooth Smooth endothelium
Smooth endothelium is very smooth to reduce... Friction
How does smooth endothelium help prevent blood clots? Helps prevent platelets from sticking and reduces friction
The blood normally produces small amounts of ... Thrombin
When blood is circulating normally, the rapidly moving blood stream prevents blood clots by.... Diluting the thrombin before a clot can form
If thrombin has accumulated to the point that a blood clot has developed, what can cause this? When blood flow has decreased
Prolonged sitting or lying can cause blood flow to... decrease
Basophils and mast cells normally secrete which anticoagulant? Heparin
Which anticoagulant prevents blood clots by blocking the action of thrombin? Heparin
Exercise can help normal... blood flow
Normal blood flow is NOT.... Stagnant or stationary
The surface of each RBC carries a protein called.. Antigen (also called agglutinogen)
People with type A blood have Which antigen/s on their RBC's? A antigen
People with type B blood have which antigen/s on their RBC's? B antigen
People with type AB blood have which antigen/s on their RBC's? Both A and B antigens
People with type O blood (have/don't have) antigen/s on their RBC's. Don't have antigens
Type A RBC's have which antibodies? has B antibodies
Type B RBC's have which antibodies? has A antibodies
Type O RBC's have which antibodies? has A and B antibodies
The rarest blood type is.. Type AB
Which blood type is a universal recipient? Type AB
Type AB RBC's have which antibodies? They do not have antibodies
Antibodies are carried by the .. blood plasma
Carries antigens the blood cell
During a transfusion, if a recipients plasma contains antibodies against the ABO type being used, these antibodies will attack the donor's RBC's causing a ... transfusion reaction
Signs and symptoms of a transfusion reaction difficulty breathing, flank pain, feelings of impending doom, temperature spike
First thing you should do when you suspect a tranfusion reaction? Stop the pump
When RBC's clump together, it means that they .. agglutinate
Clumping of RBC's blocks the.. blood vessels
At birth, ABO antibodies are.. not present
Most common blood type Type O
During a transfusion: when a person with Rh-negative blood recieves Rh-positive blooed, their body see's the Rh antigen as.. something foreign
IF a person with Rh-negative blood type is given Rh-positive blood the body develps.. antibodies against the Rh antigen (anit-Rh antibodies)
After a person with type Rh-negative has developed anti-Rh antibodies, as a result of being given Rh-positive blood, what can happen if they encounter the Rh antigen again? The persons anti-Rh antibodies will attack the Rh antigen being given causing agglutination
An Rh-negative mother, during her first pregnany with an Rh-positive fetus, will have a _________ pregnancy. normal
During a 1st pregnancy, an Rh-negative persons body will develop anti-Rh antibodies (during delivery) if the fetus has what Rh factor? Rh positive
A mother who is Rh-negative and on her subsequent pregnancy should recieve what type of injection RhoGAM
If an Rh-negative mother does not recieve the RhoGAM injection, and this is not her first pregnancy what can happen? Mothers anti-Rh antibodies could attack the fetal RBC's causing agglutination and hemolysis.
Immune globulin is also refered to as.. RhoGAM
Prevents the formation of anti-Rh antibodies by the mother, thus preventing an attack on the fetus's RBC's RhoGAM
What are the factors of A- blood A
What are the factors of A+ blood A and Rh
What are the factors of B- B
What are the factors of B+ B and Rh
What are the factors of AB- A and B
What are the factors of AB+ A, B, and Rh
What are the factors of O- There are no factors
What are the factors of O+ Rh
Can a person who is A+ give blood to a person who is AB+ yes
Can a person who is A- give blood to a person who is A+ yes
Can a person who is B- take blood from a person who is AB- yes
Can a person who is AB- take blood from a person who is A- yes
Can a person who is O+ take blood from a person who is A+ no
Can a person who is A- give to a person who is AB+ yes
Can a person who is AB- give blood to a person who is O- no
Can a person who is AB+ give blood to a person who is AB- no
What percentage of your blood is plasma? 55%
What is the key protein in plasma? Albumin
Helps equalize fluid volume in blood Albumin
The 3 formed elements in blood Erthrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets
Clots blood platelets
What are Leukocytes and what do they do? white blood cells and fight infection
What are Erthrocytes and what do they do? red blood cells and carry oxygen
What is Hematocrit? percentage of RBC in a sample
Viscosity determined by the combination of plasma and blood cells. It refers to how thick or sticky a fluid is' in this case the fthickness or stickiness of blood
The main component of plasma is water
WBC and platelets form a narrow buff colored band just beneath the plasma called buffy coat
Plasma without the clotting proteins is called serum
What is the heaviest formed element Red Blood Cells
Formation of blood cells is called Hemopoiesis
Red Bone Marrow produces all types of blood cells, where is red bone marrow found? found in long bones, flat irregular bones such as the sternum, cranial bones, vertebrae, and pelvis
Lymphatic tissues produce lymphocytes (wbc)
Where are lymphocytes produced? lymphatic tissue, thymus gland, and the spleen
RBC's cannot reproduce because they do not contain nucleolus or DNA
All blood cells can trace their beginnings to a specific type of bone marrow cell called a? stem cell
The body has two types of hemopoietic tissue red bone marrow and lymphatic tissue
They deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxide RBC
Blood contains more RBC than any other formed element. True / False TRUE
A normal rbc is shaped like a with a sunken center TRUE/FALSE True
RBC are flexible and rubber band like TRUE/FALSE True
When damaged RBC's are removed from circulation the oxygen level falls
Declining levels of oxygen makes the kidneys respond by secreting a hormone called ? Erthropoietin (EPO)
EPO stimulates the red bone marrow to do what? creating new erythrocytes or RBC's
When the number of RBC's increase, oxygen levels will rise
When less EPO is produced the production of what declines? RBC's
How many days does it take for a RBC to mature? 1 to 2 days
What is an immature form of a erythrocyte called when it is release into circulation? reticulocyte
3 classes of blood vessels: ___, ___ and ___ arteries, capillaries, veins
___ carry blood away from the heart and become progressively smaller as they branch and finally result in ___. Arteries, capillaries
___ return blood to the heart and become progressively ___ as they merge and are closer towards it. Veins, larger
How many pathways do end arteries convey? one
Functional end arteries’ anastomosis is so tiny that they can be considered ___ ___. end arteries
___ vessels supply the same body region and lie next to each other. companion
Both artery and vein walls have 3 layers called ___. tunics
The right AV valve is also called the tricuspid
The left AV valve is called the mitral
The atrioventricular valves flow between the atria and the ventricles
The semilunar valves regulate flow between the ventricles and the great artery
The tricuspid valve prevents back flow from the right ventricle to the right atrium
The mitral valve prevents back flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium
The two semilunar valves are pulmonary and aortic valves
The pulmonary valve prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
The aortic valve prevents backflow from the the aorta to the left ventricle
The semi-rigid, fibrous, connective tissue is called the skeleton of the heart
The skeleton of the heart encircles each valve, it also keeps the vales from stretching
The 4 heart sounds aortic area, pulmonary area, tricuspid area, mitral area
Aortic area heart sound is located second intercostal space, right sternal border
Pulmonary area heart sound is located second intercostal space, left sternal border
Tricuspid area heart sound is located fourth or fifth intercostal space, left sternal border
Mitral area heart sound is located fifth intercostal space, left midclavicular line
The innermost layer of arteries and veins is called tunica intima
The middle layer of the arteries and veins is called the tunica media
The outer layer of artereis and veins is called the tunica externa
The thickest layer of the vessel is called the tunica media
The layer of the vessel that consists of simple squamous epithelium is tunica intima
The layer of the vessel that is made up of fibrous connective tissue tunica externa
Becomes smaller as they lead away from the heart veins
The 3 categories of arteries conducting arteries, distributing arteries and arterioles
which artery is muscular distributing
which artery is elastic conducting
which artery is resistance vessels arterioles
Which vessel returns blood to the heart veins
Which vessel carry blood away from the heart arteries
Which vessel connects the smallest arteries to the smallest veins capillaries
3 categories of veins venules, medium sized veins and large veins
Which is the smallest of the veins Venules
Which veins have one way valves Medium sized veins
Which veins are porous Venules
How much blood is circulating in the body 5 liters
What are 3 types of granulocytes ( wbc) Neutrophils,eosinophils,basophils
The two Agranulocytes Lymphocytes and monocytes
What wbc is the first one to get to a site of a cut Neutrophils
Biggest WBC Monocyte
WBC involved in allergic reaction Eosinophils
Never let my engine blow Neutrophils-60, lymphocytes-30, monocytes-8, eosinophils- 3, basophils-0-1
Hemostasis Formation of a blood clot... When we get cut
First step in hemostasis Vascular spasm- vessel constricts
Second step of hemostasis Platelets rush to area and are caught by the rough area
Third step in hemostasis Formation of platelet plug
Last step in hemostasis Tissue repair
Thrombus Stationary blood clot
Mobile blood clot Embolus
Initiated by areas outside the blood Extrinsic pathways
Initiated by factors within the blood itself Intrinsic pathways
Naturally occurring factors that discourage clotting of blood Smooth endothelium, blood flow, anticoagulants
Process of moms immune system attacking her fetus Eyrthroblastosis fetalis
What do you need to give albumin Signed consent
What blood product can be gravity fed Albumin
Are you as the LPN allowed to hang the second bottle of albumin Yes
55 percent of blood is what Plasma
45 percent of blood is Formed elements
What is the clear extracellular matrix of blood Plasma
Insoluble protein fibers of blood clot Fibrin
Any of blood ejected from heart in one pump Stroke volume
Percent of blood that leaves the ventricle Ejection fraction- 60-80 should leave
Proprioceptors are found in Muscles and joints
Baroreceptors help do what Regulate BP
Chemoreceptors help maintain Blood PH
What three factors affect SV Preload ...contractility and afterload
Why do veins have the ability to constrict extensively To prevent back flow and to help regulate blood flow
What are the capacitance vessels Veins
What kind of arteries can handle high amounts of pressure Conducting arteries
What kind of arteries go to specific organs or sites Distributing arteries
What arteries connect to the capillaries and are also called resistance vessels Arterioles
What veins collect blood from capillaries Venules
What kind of veins are the radial and ulnar veins... With thicker elastic walls Medium sized
What kind of vein has a thick tunica externa Large veins
Examples of large veins Vena cava, pulmonary, and internal jugular
A weak spot in a vessel that bulges Annurism
Exchange vessels Cappillaries
Also called a microcirculation Capillary beds
How do capillaries usually make the exchange Diffusion
What is used to decrease edema Albumin
What is the path of pulmonary circulation Unoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle via the pulmonary arteries... Goes to lungs... Comes back with oxygen and nutrients via the pulmonary veins into the left atrium
Are lungs nourished by pulmonary circulation No.. They are nourished by systemic circulation
All systemic arteries arise from The Aorta
Largest artery Aorta
Do we palpate radial and pedal pulses bilaterally at the same time Yes
What are we looking for with head injury ICP... Inter cranial pressure
Collection of vessels at the base of the skull Circle of Willis
Where do you find hepatic portals Liver and kidneys
What is the purpose of hepatic portals Prevent heart infections
Three factors that affect BP Cardiac output, resistance, and blood volume
Amount of friction depends upon Blood viscosity and vessel diameter
Vasoconstriction Increases pressure and decreased flow
Vasodilation Decreases pressure and increases flow
Blood velocity is fastest in The Aorta
Blood velosity is slowest in Capillaries
The two ways veins fight gravity... The two key mechanisms Skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump
Created by: Annettekeith