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Science Unit 1 Test

Engineering Design Process Series of steps that engineering teams use to guide them as they solve problems. It's cyclical, meaning that engineers repeat the steps as many times as needed, making improvements along the way.
Method to use if project involves making observations Scientific Method
Steps in the Scientific Method Question, Research, Hypothesis, Experiment, Analyze data, Communicate results
Control Items that remain the same or is compared to in an experiment.
Independent variable Item that you change.
Dependent variable Item you are measuring.
Observation Information gathered using your 5 senses.
Inference Interpretation of your observations (involves an opinion).
When to use the Engineering Design Process When the project involves designing, building, and testing something.
Steps in the Engineering Design Process Problem, Research, Requirements (brainstorm), Solution, Develop prototype, Test (experiment), Solution works?, Communicate results
Criteria A standard for evaluating or testing something.
Target population An identified group intended to be served by the design.
Constraint A restriction on the degree of freedom one has in providing a solution to the problem.
Brainstorm A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc. by participation in discussion.
Protoype A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
Evaluate To judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of a design.
Mass Amount of matter in an object.
Unit of mass Grams
Instruments used to measure mass Triple beam balance, electronic scale
How to measure mass on an electronic scale Before measuring, hit the tare button to set the scale to zero.
Volume Amount of space that an object takes up.
Unit of volume Liters
Instrument used to measure volumes Graduated cylinder, beaker
Meniscus When the liquid is curving downwards in a graduated cylinder or beaker.
Temperature Measure of the movement of molecules.
Unit of temperature Celsius (fahrenheit)
Instrument used to measure temperature Thermometer
How to measure temperature on a thermometer Allow thermometer time to stop moving before reading the temperature.
Length Distance from one point to another.
Unit of length Meters
Instrument used to measure length Ruler
Time Measure of a particular interval.
Unit of time Seconds
Instrument used to measure time Stopwatch
One Place Beyond Make all measurements one place beyond the smallest measurement available on the instrument you are using.
Why metrics It gives scientists a common language so they can communicate with one another.
Graduated cylinders Used to measure the volume of liquids.
Why create graphs To display the data that is collected during an experiment (line graphs).
Line graph Show the relationship between two variables as those quantities are changing.Show data over time (rate).
Best-fit line Line that does't connect the dots.
Why use best-fit lines They show the general trend of the data and are used to predict.
Why calculate slope It gives us information such as speed, acceleration, etc.
Which axis variables go on Independent variable goes on the x axis and the left side of the data table. Dependent variable goes on the y axis and the right side of the data table.
Steps to create a graph Identify variable, determine range, determine scale, number/label axis, plot data, draw graph, title graph.
All units for length Meters, centimeters, feet, inches, miles, kilometers
All units for mass Kilograms, grams, pounds
All units for time Hours, minutes, seconds, days, months
All units for volume Cups, teaspoons, liters, milliliters, gallons, quarts
All units for currency Dollars, cents, dimes
Dimensional Analysis Tool used to convert units in everyday life.
Why use dimensional analysis It reduces error because it allows you to check your work.
Steps of Dimensional Analysis Draw grid, given information, conversion factor, cross out units, multiply top and bottom, divide final two numbers
Created by: 1962116900