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A&P2 part 2 Exam1

A&P2 Part 2 Exam 1

Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (pns) All nerves to spinal cord and other parts of the body
Autonomic nervous system ( ANS) Control of involuntary body functions ( ex heartbeat digestion )
Three parts of a neuron Celll body , dendrite , Axon
Cell body of neuron main part
Dendrites branching projections that conduct impulses to the cell body of the neuron
Axon elongated projection that conducts impulses away from the cell body of the neuron
Melanin sheets Made of protein phospholipid layer around axon
Three main types of connective tissue cells in SNS Astrocytes, Microglia, Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes star shaped cells that anchor small blood vessels to neurons
Microglia small cells that move in inflamed brain tissue carrying phagocytosis
Oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths on axons in the CNS (Schwann cells form myelin sheaths in PNS only)
Nerve bundle of peripheral axons
Tract bundle of central axons
Matter brain or cord tissue composed primarily of myelinated axons (tracts)
Gray matter brain or cord tissue composed primarily of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
Nerve coverings fibrous connective tissue
Endoneurium surrounds individual fibers within a nerve
Perineurium surrounds a group (fascicle) of nerve fibers
Epineurium surrounds the entire nerve
Nerve impulses (action potentials are conducted from receptors to effectors over neuron pathways or reflex arcs; conduction by a reflex arc results in a reflex (that is, contraction by a muscle or secretion by a gland)
Two-neuron arcs • The simplest reflex arcs, sensory neurons synapsing in the spinal cord with motor neurons; • Knee Jerk
Three-neuron arcs • Sensory neurons synapse in the spinal cord Interneuron synapse with motor neurons and spinal cord • More complex response; involves an interneuron, in addition to sensory and motor
action potentials o A self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron membrane
• Olfactory from nose to brain
• Optic from eye to brain
• Oculomotor from brain to eye muscle
• Trochlear from brain to external eye muscles
• Trigeminal from skin and mucous of head and from teeth to the brain, also from brain to chewing muscles
• Abduces from brain to the external eye muscles
• Facial from taste buds of tongue to brain, from brain to face muscles
• Vestibulocochlear from ear to the brain
• Glossopharyngeal – From throat and taste buds of tongue to brain, also from brain to throat muscles and salivary glands
• Vagus from throat, larynx, and organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities to the brain, also from brain to muscles of throat and to organs in thoracic abdominal cavities
• Accessory from brain to certain shoulder and neck muscles
• Hypoglossal from brain to muscles of tongue • Tongue movements
o Sciatica • Is inflammation of the sciatic nerve that innervates the legs
o Neuralgia • or muscle pain, often accompanies neuritis
o Trigeminal neuralgia • Recurring episodes of stabbing pain along one or more branches of the trigeminal (fifth cranial) nerve in the head
o Bell palsy • Paralysis of facial features resulting from damage to the facial (seventh cranial) nerve
o Herpes zoster, or shingles • Viral infection caused by chickenpox virus that has invaded the dorsal root ganglion and remained dormant until an episode of shingles
o Autonomic nervous system • Motor neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to • Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle, glandular epithelial tissue;
o Autonomic neurons— • Preganglionic autonomic neurons conduct from spinal cord or brainstem to an autonomic ganglion
o Autonomic or visceral effectors • Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses • Composed of two divisions—the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system
o Autonomic conduction paths • Consist of two-neuron relays (that is, preganglionic neurons from the CNS to autonomic ganglia, synapses, postganglionic neurons from ganglia to visceral effectors)
• Sympathetic Nervous System o A chain of sympathetic ganglia is in front of and at each side of the spinal columno Serves as the emergency or stress system, controlling o Change enduced fight-or-flight response
• Parasympathetic Nervous System o Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons have dendrites and cell bodies in the gray matter of the brainstem and the sacral segments of spinal cord everyday system
o Cholinergic fibers eganglionic axons of parasympathetic and sympathetic systems and parasympathetic postganglionic axons release acetylcholine
o Adrenergic fibers— axons of sympathetic postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
• Autonomic Nervous System as a Whole o Regulates the body’s automatic functions in ways that maintain or quickly restore homeostasis
• Which neurons transmit impulses from the brain and the spinal cord o Motor
the most common primary diseases of the cns is a myelin disorder called o Multiple sclerosis
• Nerve impulses are also called __ because each one is a difference in charge that usually triggers an action by the cell o Action potential
• Identify the two morphine like neurotransmitters that function as inhibitors o Endorphins and enkephalis
• Which of these would not be found in the brain stem o Thalamus
• Which division of the nervous system function as emergency system o Sympathetic
• General senses ➢ temperature, touch, pressure, pain and proprioception
➢ Special senses special organs of the head. ➢ sight, sound, taste, smell and balance
Properties of Stimulus • Sensory neurons are activated • Neurons terminate in brain • Each receptor type is most sensitive to a particular modality of stimulus
Labeled Line coding • 1:1 association of receptor with sensation . The brain associates a signal coming from a specific receptor with a specific modality.
Properties of Stimulus: Intensity ➢ Coded by number of receptors activated and frequency of action potentials
Properties of Stimulus Duration ➢ Coded by duration of action potentials ➢ Some receptors can adapt, or cease to respond
• Action potential ➢ Rapid and uniform electrical signal conducted down a cell membrane
• Graded potential ➢ Change in membrane potential whose magnitude is proportional to the stimulus and that decreases with distance as it spreads inside the cell membrane
Receptor potential • Change in sensory receptor membrane potential (graded potential in a special senses receptor
• Meissner’s corpuscles Fine touch
Pacinian corpuscles • Vibration
Merkel receptors Pressure/texture
Temperature Receptors Free nerve endings  Terminate in subcutaneous layers
Nociceptors pain
The somatic senses include itch, touch ,proprioception ( body n space) pain
Proprioreceptors monitor limb and muscle position
The minimum stimulus required to activate a sensory receptor is its _______. threshold
Which type of sensory information is NOT routed through the thalamus on its way to the brain olfactory
The intensity of a sensory stimulus is coded by _____. the frequency of action potentials
Fibers that carry the most rapid sensory signals are myelinated and large diameter
Ipsilateral means on the same side
Ascending sensory pathways cross the midline in the brainstem and in the spinal cord)
 Visual Pathway ➢ Innermost layer of retina contains rods and cones➢ Nerve impulse leaves the eye through the optic nerve; the point of exit is free of receptors and is therefore called a blind spot brain can process visual info
 Diabetic retinopathy damage to retina from hemorrhages and growth of abnormal vessels associated with diabetes mellitus
 Glaucoma increased intraocular pressure decreases blood flow in retina and thus causes retinal degeneration
 Nyctalopia night blindness) or the inability to see in dim light is caused by retinal degeneration or lack of vitamin A  Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (most common)
 External ear  Contains ceruminous glands ( secrete air wax) ➢ Inflammation called otitis media
 Inner Ear semicircular canals, and cochlea
 Cells acted on by hormones target cells found within target organs
 Hormones removed from blood by  Degrading enzymes  Kidneys  Liver
 Half-life time required for hormone's blood level to decrease by half
duration of Hormone Activity ➢ Ranges from 10 seconds to several hours
Nonsteroid and Steroid Hormones Nonsteroid hormones (first messengers) bind to receptors on the target cell membrane, triggering second messengers to affect the cell’s activities
Target Cell Activation Target cell activation depends on three factors ➢ Blood levels of hormone ➢ Relative number of receptors on or in target cell ➢ Affinity of binding between receptor and hormone
➢ Up-regulation target cells form more receptors in response to low hormone levels
➢ Down-regulation— target cells lose receptors in response to high hormone levels
Regulation of Hormone Secretion • Negative feedback—mechanisms that reverse the direction of a change in a physiological system o Maintain homeostatis , insulin • Positive feedback—(uncommon) mechanisms that amplify o Oxytosin child birth
Prostaglandins  Diffuse only a short distance to act on cells in that tissue
 Anterior pituitary gland ➢ Adeno = gland
 Posterior pituitary gland neurohypophysis) ➢ Neuro = nervous
 TSH—• Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates growth of the thyroid gland; also stimulates thyroid hormone release
 ACTH• Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates growth of the adrenal cortex and glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) release
 FSH• Follicle-stimulating hormone initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month in the ovary and stimulates one or more follicles to develop to the stage of maturity and ovulation
 LH• Luteinizing hormone  Acts with FSH to stimulate estrogen secretion and follicle growth to maturity  Causes ovulation  Causes luteinization of the ruptured follicle
 GH- growth hormone  Stimulates growth by accelerating protein anabolism  Accelerates fat catabolism and slows glucose catabolism
 Prolactin (PRL) or lactogenic hormone  Stimulates breast development during pregnancy  Secretion of milk after the delivery of the baby
ADH (Vasopressin)  Inhibits or prevents urine formation  Regulates water balance
 Oxytocin ➢ Stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract ➢ May initiate labor
Thyroid Gland t3 10 times more active
Function of Hormones Insulin decreases the blood glucose by accelerating the movement of glucose
hypoglycemia excessive insulin secretion causes hypoglycemia
➢ Ovaries produce estrogens and progesterone
Placenta secretes estrogens, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG
➢ Adrenogenital syndrome hyper secretion
Thymus ➢ Plays an important role in the development and function of the body’s immune system
Placenta Produces chorionic gonadotropins, estrogens, and progesterone ➢ Maintain the corpus luteum during pregnancy
Pineal Gland ➢ Glandular tissue predominates in children and young adults ➢ Becomes fibrous and calcified with age  Secretes melatonin
• Normal volumes of blood o Plasma-2.6 l o Formed elements 2.4 l o Whole blood- 4 to 6 L average or 7%
RBC Abnormalities  Named according to size: ➢ Normocytes- normal blood cell size ➢ Microcytic ➢ Macrocytixc
 Named according to hemoglobin content of cell: ➢ Normochromic – normoal content of heboglobin ➢ Hypochromic ➢ Hyperchromic
Polycythemia Cause is generally cancerous transformation of red bone marrow Dramatic increase in RBC numbers
Anemia Caused by low numbers or abnormal RBCs or by low levels or defective types of hemoglobin
Leukocyte Types and Functions ➢ Neutrophils ➢ Eosinophils ➢ Basophils
 Agranulocytes monocytes in peripheral blood (macrophages in tissues);
lymphocytes—B lymphocytes ➢ Monocytes ➢ Lumphocytes
White Blood Cell Disorders ➢ Lymphoid neoplasms ➢ Myeloid neoplasms
Multiple Myeloma  Cancer of B lymphocytes called plasma cells
fibrous pericardium  There to protect the heart and anchor it in the body  Layers separated by fluid filled caviy t
 Heart chambers ➢ Two upper chambers are called atria (receiving chambers)—right and left atria ➢ Two lower chambers called ventricles (discharging chambers discharge blood)—right and left ventricles
myocardium  Wall of each heart chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue called
 Endocardium smooth lining of heart chambers
➢ Fossa ovalis remnant of foramen ovale of fetal heart
 Interventricular septum separates ventricles
The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits  Heart is transport system; two side-by-side pumps ➢ Right side receives oxygen-poor blood from tissues (pulmonary circuit) ➢ Left side receives oxygenated blood from lungs systemic )
The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits ➢ Right atrium ➢ Left atrium
Heart Valves • Valves keep blood flowing through the heart; prevent backflow • Atrioventricular (AV) valves
 Pulmonary semilunar  Beginning of the pulmonary artery
 Aortic semilunar  Beginning of the aorta
 Systemic circuit ➢ Left atrium à mitral valve à left ventricle ➢ Left ventricle à aortic semilunar valve à aorta ➢ Aorta à systemic circulation
• SA (sinoatrial) node pace maker o Sets pace for the rhythm of the heart
• AV (atrioventricular) node located in the right atrium interatrial septum
• AV bundle septum of ventricle
• Purkinje fibers in the wall of ventricle
eeg trace depolorization caused by p wave ,impulse delayed to av node, ventricular depolorization qrs atrial deplorization occurs ,ventricular depolorization complete, ventricular repolorization begings t wave, ventricular repolorization complete
right side of the heart recieves oxygen poor blood from tissue
left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
vericosa veins enlarged veins in which blood pools
thrombophlebitis vein inflammmation accompanied by clot formation
bluish tint in fetal blood circulation cyanosis
how many pulse points are there 9
vital signs temperature , pressure , respiratory rate , pulse
pulse pressure caused by expansion of recoil arteries
radial pulse pulse taken at wrist
pressure points where arteries are close to body surface
systolic pressure less than 120
diastolic pressure less than 80
hypertension occurs when blood pressure exceeds 140/90
circulatory stock failure of the circulatory system to deliver oxygen to the tissues adequately resulting in cell impairment
cardiogenic stock caused by heart failure
hypovolemic shock drop in blood volume that causes blood pressure and blood flow to drop ( hemorrhage)
primary or essential hypertension 90% hypertensive conditions no underlying caise
secondary hypertension due to identifiable disorders including obstructed renal arteries, kidney disease , and endocrine disorders ( hypothyroidism and cushings)
hypotension low blood pressure 90/60
homeostatic imbalance hypotension orthoatatic hypotension, chronic hypotension , acute hypotension
Created by: Julaine_13