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Japanese Particles

Japanese for Busy People I - Particles

TermDefinition
Watashi ( ) Sumisu desu. wa - topic marker
Sumisu-san ( ) ashita Kyooto ni ikimasu. wa - topic marker
Nozomi Depaato ( ) Tanaka desu. no - belonging, affiliation (I'm Tanaka with Nazomi Dept. Store)
Watashi ( ) meishi desu. no - my or mine (my business card)
Watashi ( ) desu. no - my or mine (mine)
Nihon ( ) kuruma desu. no - country or origin (Japanese camera)
Kyooto ( ) shisha ni ikimashita. no - belonging, affiliation (Kyoto branch office)
Teeburu ( ) ue ni hana to shimbun ga arimasu. no - placement (on top of the table)
Raishuu ( ) kin-yoobi ni Nihon ni kimasu. no - used to connect two points of time (next Friday)
Kaigi ( ) ato de Sapporo-shisha ni ikimasu. no - used with before and after (before the meeting)
Tsugi ( ) shingoo o migi ni magatte kudasai. no - used for directions for next (next traffic light)
Tomodachi ( ) Hofuman-san ni moraimashita. no - appositve (my friend Ms. Hoffman)
Watashi ( ) sukina iro desu. no - my or mine (my favorite color)
Sumisu-san wa Amerika-jin desu ( )? ka - question marker
Bengoshi desu ( ), enjinia desu ( )? ka - question marker
Donata desu ( )? ka - question marker
Soo desu ( ). ka - (is that so?)
10-ji ( ) desu. (opening time) kara - opens, from (opens at 10:00)
Honkon ( ) imashita. kara - from (from Hong Kong)
Tookyoo ( ) Nikkoo made densha de 1-jikan han kakarimasu. kara - from, travel time (from Tokyo to Nikko)
2-kai ni resutoran ga arimasu ( ), resutoran de shokuji o shimasen ka. kara - because (used at the end of the first clause where the second clause expresses the reason why)
8-ji ( ) desu. (closing time) made - closes, until (closes at 8:00)
10-ji kara 8-ji ( ) desu. made - until (opens from 10am until 8pm)
Sore ( ) kudasai. o - direct object marker (I'll take that one)
Kabuki ( ) mimasu. o - direct object marker (I watch Kabuki)
Benkyoo ( ) shimasu. o - connects nouns with verbs (I did studying) used with mimasu, yomimasu, nomimasu, kaimasu, etc.
Tsugi no shingoo ( ) migi ni magatte kudasai. o - particle indicating a point of passage, before L/R (Next stop light turn right please.)
Are ( ) 3000-en desu. (also) mo - too, also, either; used in both affirmative and negative senences (That one is also 3,000 yen.)
Sampuru no shashin ( ) okutte kudasai. (more) mo - another request for more (Also, please send photographs of the samples.)
Teeburu no ue ni nani ( ) arimasen. mo - "nothing" when in between nani (what) and arimasen (does not exist) (There is nothing on top of the table.)
Hitori ( ) kimasu ka. hitori de - alone, by one person
Takushii ( ) kimashita. de - by, means of conveyance (I came by taxi.)
Sumisu-san wa kinoo resutoran ( ) ban-gohan o tabemashita. de - at, location where an action takes place (Yesterday, Mr.Smith ate dinner at a restaurant.
Do-yoobi ni Asakusa ( ) o-matsuri ga arimasu. de - at, the place where an event happens (usually paired with arimasu) (I'll be going on Saturday to a festival at Asakusa).
Sumisu-san wa kinoo paatii no ato ( ) takushii de kaerimashita. de - after (phrase no ato de)
Katarogu o sugu meeru ( ) okutte kudasai. de - by, means of telecommunication or post (paired with okurimasu) (Please send me the catalogue by email right away.)
Chan-san wa kinoo tomodachi ( ) resutoran ni ikimashita. to - with, together with (Ms. Chan went to a restaurant with a friend yesterday.)
Teeburu no ue ni shimbun ( ) hana ga arimasu. (and) to - and; used with non-animate things/ arimasu (The newspaper and flowers are on top of the table.)
Dono densha ( ) ikimasu ka. ga - subject marker used to state a thing or person exists in a particular location
1-kai ni ginkoo ( ) arimasu. ga - subject marker used to state a thing or person exists in a particular location.
Uketsuke ni onna no hito ( ) imasu. ga - subject marker used to state a thing or person exists in a particular location.
Moshimoshi, Chan desu ( ), ohayoo gozaimasu. ga - conjunction that joins two clauses. A courteous hesitation indicating the phrase before is merely preliminary to the principal matter.
Sumisu-san wa ashita ginkoo ( ) ikimasu. ni - to; indicates a direction of movement, used with verbs ikimasu, kimasu, kaerimasu.
Hikooki wa 10-ji han ni Sapporo ( ) tsukimasu. ni - at; indicates point of arrival or a location toward which an action such as going, coming, entering, or boarding is directed.
3-gatsu 26-nichi ( ) Igirisu kara kimashita. ni - on; used with specfic time expressions
Uketsuke ( ) onna no hito ga imasu. ni - at; existence in or at a place is indicated by the particle ni.
Sumisu-san wa ashita tomodachi ( ) aimasu. ni - at, on, in; as an object marker, indicates a person or thing an action is directed at.
Sumisu-san wa tomodachi( ) denwa o shimasu. ni - as an object marker, indicates receiver or an action.
Chan-san wa Sumisu-san ( ) hana o moraimashita. ni - to; indicating giver/receiver
Kaban no naka ni kagi ( ) hon ga arimasu. (more than 2 things) ya - and; used when listing two or more things or implying the existence of others.
Kaigi wa 3-ji kara desu ( ). ne - comes at the end of the sentence or phrase and is like "isn't it?" in English
Nihon no supa desu ( ). yo - particle used at the end of the sentence to call attetion to information the speaker thinks the other person doesn't know.
Created by: Nolin