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Anatomy- Section 2.8

The Cardiovascular System

Approximately ____ of the heart's mass is to the left of the midline. two thirds (2/3)
The ____, the innermost layer of the heart, line's the heart's chambers and is bathed in blood. endocardium
The ____ is the thick middle layer of the heart. myocardium
The myocardium's cells are unique in that they physically resemble skeletal muscle but that electrical properties similar to ____ muscle. smooth
The ____ is a protective sac surrounding the heart. pericardium
The pericardium consists of two layers, ____ and ____. visceral, parietal
The ____ ____, also called the epicardium, is the inner layer, in contact with the heart muscle itself. visceral pericardium
The ____ ____ is the outer, fibrous layer. parietal pericardium
The heart contains ____ chambers. four
The ____, the two superior chambers, receive incoming blood. atria
The ____, the two larger, inferior chambers, pump blood out of the heart. ventricles
The heart contains two pairs of valves, the ____ valves and the ____ valves, made of endocardial and connective tissue. atrioventricular, semilunar
The right atrioventricular valve is called the ____ valve because it has three leaflets, or cusps. tricuspid
The left atrioventricular valve, called the ____ valve, has two leaflets. mitral
Specialized fibers called ____ ____ connect the valves' leaflets to the papillary muscles. chordae tendineae
The chordae tendineae prevent the valves from prolapsing into the atria and allowing ____ during ventricular contraction. backflow
The ____ ____ originate in the aorta, just above the leaflets of the ___ valve. coronary arteries, aortic
____ ____ is the period of time from the end of one cardiac contraction to the end of the next. Cardiac cycle
____ is the period of time when the myocardium is relaxed and cardiac filling and coronary perfusion occur. Diastole
____ is the period of the cardiac cycle when the myocardium is contracting. Systole
____ is pertaining to heart rate. Chronotrophy
____ is pertaining to cardiac contractile force (B/P). Inotrophy
____ is pertaining to the speed of impulse transmission (EKG). Dromotrophy
____ ____ are specialized bands of tissue inserted between myocardial cells that increase the rate in which the action potential is spread from cell to cell. Intercalated discs
____ is a group of cardiac muscle cells that physiologically function as a unit. Syncytium
____ ____ is a reversal of charges at a cell membrane so that the inside of the cell becomes positive in relation to the outside. Cardiac depolarization
____ ____ is the opposite of the cell's resting state in which the inside of the cell is negative in relation to the outside. Cardiac depolarization
____ ____ is the normal electrical state of cardiac cells. Resting potential
____ ____ is the stimulation of myocardial cells, as evidenced by a change in the electrical charge, that subsequently spreads across the myocardium. Acting potential
____ is the ability of the cells to respond to an electrical stimulation. Excitability
____ is the ability of the cells to propagate the electrical impulse from one cell to another. Conductivity
____ is the pacemaker cells' capability of self depolarization. Automaticity
____ is the ability of muscle cells to contact, or shorten. Contractility
SA node = ____-____ beats per minute 60-100
AV node = ____-____ beats per minute 40-60
Purkinje system = ____-____ beats per minute 15-40
Created by: whit_1348



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