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3 Basic Parts of the nervous system Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerve Cells
3 jobs of the nervous system sensation, integration and response
Divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) and Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord
The PNS consists of nerve network
Neurolglia protects the neurons
What is cerebrospinal fluid made of Glucose and protein
What is the blood-brain barrier made of neuroglia
Formed as neuroglia wrap around the capillaries blood-brain barrier
What protects the brain from foreign substances blood-brain barrier
The 3 classes of neurons Sensory Neurons, Interneurons, and Motor neurons
What is the function of the sensory neurons detect stimuli
What is the function of the interneurons connect pathways
What is the function of the motor neurons relay messages
Neurons handle communication
What can cross the blood-brain barrier alcohol and nicotine
The 3 basic parts of a neuron cell body or soma, axon and dendrite
What is the control center of a neuron soma/cell body
The part of the neuron that looks like branches of a tree, it receives signals from other neurons dendrites
The part of the neuron that carries nerve signals way from the soma axon
What is the name of the cells that form the myelin sheath in many neurons Schwann cells
Gaps in the myelin sheath that occur at evenly spaced intervals nodes of Ranvier
The end of the axon branches extensively with each axon terminal ending in a synaptic knob
action potential nerve impulse
axon fiber extending from a neuron's cell body that conducts impulses
brainstem stem like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres to the spinal cord; consists of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
Cerebellum portion of the brain responsible for coordination of voluntary moment and balance
cerebral cortex the surface of the cerebrum consisting of a thin layer of gray matter
cerebrospinal fluid clean colorless fluid that fills the brain's ventricles and central canal and also bathes the outside of the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum largest portion of the brain
dermatone a specific are of the skin innervated by a spinal nerve
epidural space small space between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae
frontal lobe portion of the cerebrum responsible for decision making, reasoning, memory and voluntary movements
3 layers of the meninges pia mater, arachnoid matter, and dura mater
how many spinal nerves are there 31
plexis of the spinal cord cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral
structures of the spinal cord tracts, central canal and the epidural space
the main spinal nerve is the phrenic
myelin fatty sheath encasing the axons of many neuron formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system
nerve a bundle of neurons that transmit impulses between the brain and the spinal cord and the rest of the body
neuroglia cells in the nervous system that support neurons but do not conduct impulses
neurons nervous system cells that conduct impulses
occipital lobe portion of the cerebrum responsible for analyzing and interpreting visual information
medulla oblongata attaches brain to the spinal cord; contains centers that govern heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
mixed nerve nerve that contains both sensory and motor fibers
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for rest & digest
The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for fight or flight
Nicotinic Receptors produce an excited response
Regular activities that maintain homeostasis Autonomic Nervous System
The Autonomic Nervous System is also called visceral motor system
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem? Midbrain, pons, medulla oblonganta
What does the midbrain control? sensory and motor impulses. auditory and visual reflexes
What does the pons control? Conveys signals to and from different parts of the brain
What does the medulla oblonganta control? cardiac center, casomotor center, respiratory center.
Which part of the brain holds the most neurons? the cerebellum
cerebellum is mostly in charge of? balance, cordination, and posture. (motor functions)
Which 2 structures are included in the Diencephalon? the thalamus and the hypothalamus
What does the thalamus control? sensory impulses, as well as being involved in memory and emotion.
What does the hypothalamus control? the pituitary gland, or the "master gland"
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum? Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital.
What kind of matter is in the cerebrum? White and gray matter.
Which matter is myelinated? White matter
Which matter is unmyelinated? Grey matter
What does the corpus callosum do? Connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
What is the Limbic system's function? emotion and learning
What are the two structures included in the limbic system? hippocampus, and amygdala
hippocampus does what? converts long term memory into short term memory
amygdala does what? stores and recals information
What are the two major functions of the cerebral cortex? Motor functions, and sensory functions.
What is receptive aphasia? Difficulty making out words another person is saying.
What is expressive aphasia? Difficulty speaking words aloud.
What is aphagia? Difficulty eating or swallowing.
What are the four special senses of the cerebral corex? gustatory(taste), visual, auditory, olfactory(smell)
The information passageway that relays messages from the brain to the rest of the body Spinal cord
The spinal cord has how many pairs of spinal nerves? 31
The spinal cord is which part of the nervous system? Central nervous system
How does the spine get up to the brain? Foramen Magnum
Nerves from the cervical region of the spinal cord innervate which parts of the body? Chest, head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and diaphragm
Nerves from the thoracic region extend where? To the intercostal muscles in the ribcage
Nerves from the thoracic region are innervated by which muscles? The abdominal muscles, and the back muscles
Which spinal region innervates the abdominal wall and parts of the thighs and legs? Lumbar region
Sacral nerve region extends to the... Thighs, buttocks, skin of the legs and feet, and anal and genital regions.
Bundles of spinal nerves all also refered to as a ________. Plexus
Plexus is another term for ________. bundle (nerve bundle)
One of the largest nerves in the body that runs down the back of the thigh? Sciatic nerve ( a sacral nerve )
Where would an injection be given in the lumbar region and why? between L3 and L4. Going to this lower region helps prevent damage to the spinal cord.
The bundle of nerves at the end of the spinal cord that looks like a hores tale is called... Cauda equina
Dermatomes can help the physician in detecting what type of injury? Spinal Injury
Which spinal nerve innervates the diaphragm? Phrenic nerve
What sits inside a protective,bony tunnel created by the stacked vertebrae? Spinal cord
Bundles of axons are called.... Nerve tracts
What is the function of tracts? Carries impulses from one part of the nervous system to another
Circulates through the brain and nourishes the spinal cord Cerebrospinal fluid
The holes where the spinal cord sits vertebral foramen
A minute opening that carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord Central canal
Contains a cushioning layer of fat as well as blood vessels and connective tissue Epidural space
The space between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae Epidural space
Function of spinal nerves Relay information from spinal cord to the rest of the body
Spinal nerves are which part of the nervous system? Peripheral nervous system
Consists of many nerve fibers (axons) encased by connective tissue Nerve
How many nerve fibers (axons) are contained in a single nerve? varies from a few to as many as a million
A neuron is a .... Nerve cell
What contains many neurons? A nerve
Nerve fibers are gathered together in bundles called..... Fascicles
Several fascicles that are grouped together, along with blood vessels are ... Fasicles of nerve fibers
Fascicles of nerve fibers are wrapped in what type of tisse? Dense connective tissue
Nerves containing only sensory (afferent) fibers are? Sensory nerves
Nerves containing ony motor (efferent) fibers are? Motor nerves
Nerves that can transmit signals in two directions? Mixed nerves
Nerves that carry sensation toward the spinal cord? Sensory nerves
Nerves that carry messages to muscles and glands? Motor nerves
Most nerve fiber bundles (fascicles) are ________. Mixed
The largest portion of the brain? Cerebrum
The surface of the cerebrum is marked by thick ridges called? Gyri (singular:gyrus)
Shallow grooves that divide the gyri? Sulci (singular:sulcus)
Deep sulci are called? Fissures
Name the four major regions of the brain. Cerebrum, the diencephalon, the cerebellum, and the brainstem
The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. This is called___________. Contralateral
What sits between the cerebrum and the midbrain? Diencephalon
Function of the diencephalon? Temperature control in the body
The second largest region of the brain Cerebellum
Part of the brain contains more neurons than the rest of the brain combined Cerebellum
This portion of the brain helps control voluntary muscle movement Cerebellum
The part of the brain that controls blood pressure, respiratory, and heart rate Brain stem
Your ability think, remember, feel use judgement, and move can be credited to what part of the brain Cerebrum
Inside the skull, three layers of what, covers and protects the brain Meninges: dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
The tough outside layer (meninge) that covers and protects the brain Dura mater
The middle layer (meninge) that covers and protects the brain Arachnoid mater
Bottom layer (meninge) that clings tightly to the surface of the brain Pia mater
Separates the dura from the arachnoid mater Subdural space
In some locations in the brain, the dura mater separates to create spaces called... Dural sinuses
Sinuses that collect blood that has passed through the brain and is on its way back to the heart Dural sinuses
The four chambers of the brain Ventricles
Network of blood vessels lining the ventricle walls Choroid plexus
Cerebrospinal fluid is made where? Choroid plexus
A build up of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, causing pressure on the tissue Hydrocephalus
Created by: thirdghere