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Chapter 2-5 vocal

Ap biology

Matter anything that takes up space and has mass
Elements substance that cannot be chemically broken down to other types of matter
Compound made up of two of more elements combined in a fixed ratio
Trace elements requited in very minute quantities
Atom smallest unit of an element retaining physical and chemical properties of that element
Neutrons uncharged
Protons positively charged
Electrons negatively charged
Atomic number number of protons. Unless otherwise the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
Mass number equal to the number of protons and neutrons
Isotopes the number of neutrons can vary among the atoms of an element
Potential energy stored in matter
Electron shells or energy levels electrons can orbit in several different potential energy states
Valence electrons the outermost electron shell
Orbital three dimensional space or volume which an electron is most likely to be found
Chemical bonds atoms with incomplete valence shells can either share electrons with or completely transfer electrons to or from other atoms to complete valence shell. Which results in attractions
Covalent bond when two atoms share a pair of valence electrons
Molecule consists of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Structural formula indicates both the number and type of atoms and also the bonding within a molecule
Molecular formula indicates the kinds and numbers of atoms in a molecule
Electronegativity is the attraction of an atom for shared electrons
Nonpolar if the electrons remain equally shared between the two nuclei and the covalent bond
Polar covalent bond unequal sharing of electrons result in a slight negative charge
Ions if two atoms are very different in their attraction for the shared electrons, the more electronegative atom may completely transfer an electron from another atom, resulting in the formation of charged atom
Cation atom that lost the electron is positively charged
Anion negatively charged atom that gained the electron
Ionic bond holds these atoms( cation and anion) together because of the attraction of their opposite charges
Ionic compounds also called salts, exist as three dimensional crystalline lattice arrangements help together by electrical attractions
Hydrogen bond when a hydrogen atoms is covalently bonded with an electronegative atom (O, N, F) and thus has a partial positive charge, it can be attracted to another electronegative atom
Van der Waals interaction momentary uneven electron distribution produce changing positive and negative regions that create these weak attractions
Chemical reactions making and breaking of chemical bonds in the transformation of matter into different forms
Chemical equilibrium forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate and the relative concentrations of reactants and products no longer change.
Polar molecule has a v shape with a slight positive charge on each hydrogen atom and a slight negative charge associated with the oxygen
Cohesion creates a more structurally organized liquids and enables water to move against gravity in plants
Adhesion of water molecules to the walls of plant vessels also contributes to water transport
Surface tension hydrogen bonding between water molecules produces this at the interference between water and air
Kinetic energy the energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules
Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the molecule in a substance
Calorie(cal) the amount of heat energy it takes to raise 1 g of water 10C
Kilocalorie(kcal) is 1,000 calories, the amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water 10c
Joule equals .239 cal
Specific heat is the amount of heat absorbed or lost when 1 g of substance changes its temperature by 1OC
Evaporation liquid to a gas
Heat of vaporization quantity of heat that must be absorbed by 1 g of a liquid to be converted to a gas
Evaporative cooling as a substance vaporizes the liquid left behind loses the kinetic energy of the escaping molecules and cools down
Solution a liquid homogenous mixture of two or more substances
Solvent the dissolving agent
Solute substance that is dissolved
Aqueous solution one of which is water is the solvent
Hydrophilic these are ionic and polar substances, they have an affinity for water due to electrical attractions and hydrogen bonding
Hydrophobic these are nonpolar and non- ionic, they will not mix with or dissolve in water
Mole(mol) amount of a substance that has a mass in grams numerically equivalent to it molecular weight(sum of the weight of all atoms in the molecule) in Daltons. It has exactly the same number of molecules, 6.02x 1023
Molarity number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
Acid adds H- to a solution
Base reduces H+
Strong acids or Strong base dissociated completely when mixed with water
Weak acids or weak base reversibly dissociates, releasing or binding H+
PH -log[H+]
Buffers maintain a constant pH by accepting excess H+ ions or donating H+ ions when H+ concentration decreases
Acid precipitation with a pH lower than normal pH 5.6, dud to the reaction of water in the atmosphere with the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides released by the combustion of fossil fuels
Organic chemistry the study of carbon-containing molecules
Hydrocarbons consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
Isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements and thus different properties
Structural isomers different in the arrangement of atoms and often the location of double bonds
Geometric isomers have the same sequence of covalently bonded atoms but differ in spatial arrangement due to the inflexibility of double bonds
Enantiomers are left and right handed versions of each other and differ greatly in their biological activity
Hydroxyl group- consists of an oxygen and hydrogen(-OH) covalently bonded to the carbon skeleton. Molecules that have this group are called alcohols, their name often end in –ol
Carbonyl group consists of a carbon bonded to an oxygen. If this group is at the end of the carbon skeleton it is called aldehyde. If not then it is called ketone
Carboxyl group consists of a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and also attached to a hydroxyl group (-COOH). Compounds with this group is called carboxylic acid or organic acids because they tend to dissociate to release H+
Amino group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen (-NH2). Compound with this group is called amines, can act as bases
Sulfhydryl group consists of sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen (-SH). Thiols are what they are called that contains this group
Phosphate group bonded to the carbon skeleton by its oxygen attached to the phosphorus atom that is bonded to three other oxygen atoms (-OP3-2). This group is an anion due to the dissociation of hydrogen ions
Macromolecules giant molecules (proteins, lipids, carbohdrates, nucleic acid)
Polymer are chainlike molecules formed from the linking together of many monomers
Monomers small molecules
Condensation reaction (dehydration reaction) one monomer provides a hydroxyl (-OH) and the other contributes a hydrogen (-H) to release a water molecule and a covalent bond between the monomers is formed
Hydrolysis the breaking of bonds between a monomer through the addition of water molecules. A hydroxyl is joined to one monomer while hydrogen is bonded with the other
Carbohydrates include sugar and their polymers
Sugars (smallest carbohydrate) serve as fuel and carbon source
Monosaccharide have the general formula (CH2O)n . The number of these units forming a sugar varies from 3-7 with hexoses (C6H12O6) trioses and pentose found most commonly
Disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides
Sucrose it’s a disaccharide consisting of a glucose and a fructose molecule. Also know as table sugar
Glycosidic linkage covalent bond formed by a dehydration reaction between two monosaccharides
Polysaccharides storage or structural macromolecules made from a few hundred to few thousand monosaccharides
Starch a storage molecule in plants, is polymer made of glucose molecules joined by 1-4 linkage that gives starch a helical shape
Glycogen a highly branched polymer of glucose, as their energy storage from. Animals produce this
Cellulose major component of plant cell walls. It differs from starch by the configuration of the ring from of glucose an the resulting geometry of the glycosidic bonds
Chitin a structural polysaccharide formed from glucose monomers with nitrogen-containing groups and found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of many fungi
Lipids fats phospholipids and steroids are a diverse assemblage of macromolecules that are classed together called…? They are based on their hydrophobic behavior. They do not form polymers
Fats composed of fatty acids attached to the 3 carbon alcohol, glycerol
Fatty acid consists of a long hydrocarbon “tail” with a carboxyl group at the “head” end. The nonpolar hydrocarbons make this hydrophobic
Triacylglycerol also called fat, consists of 3 fatty acids, each linked to glycerol by an ester linkage, a bond that forms between a hydroxyl and a carboxyl group.
Unsaturated fatty acids fatty acids with double bonds in their carbon skeleton. The double bond creates a kink in the shape of the molecule and prevent the fat molecule from packing closely together and becoming liquid at room temperature. Fats of plants and fishes are examples
Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds in their carbon skeleton. Most animals fat are this and are solid at room temperature.
Phospholipids consists of glycerol linked to two fatty acids and a negatively charged phosphate group, to which other small molecules may be attached
Steroids are class of lipids distinguished by 4 connected carbon rings with various functional groups attached
Cholesterol its an important steroid that is common component of animal cell membranes and a precursor for other steroids, including many hormones
Proteins central to almost every function of life. Consist of one or more polypeptide chain
Polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids
Amino acids are composed of asymmetric carbon, called alpha carbon, bonded to a hydrogen, carboxyl group and amino group and a variable side chain called the R group
Peptide bond links the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another
Primary structure the unique, sequence of amino acids within a protein
Secondary structure involves the coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone
Alpha helix a coil produced by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid
Beta pleated sheet is also held by repeated hydrogen bonds along the polypeptide backbone
Tertiary structure interaction between the various side chains
Hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar sided groups in the center of the molecule, van der waals interaction, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds between negatively and positively charged side chains produce the stable and unique shape of the protein
Disulfide bridges strong covalent bonds, may occur between the sulfhydryl side groups of cysteine monomers that have been brought close together by the folding of polypeptide
Quaternary structure occurs in proteins that are composed of more than one polypeptide chain
Denature losing its native conformation and thus its function
x-ray crystallography coupled with computer modeling and graphics, biochemist have established the three dimensional shape of many of these molecules
chaperonins assist the folding of other proteins
genes units of inheritance that determine the primary structure of proteins
nucleic acids macromolecules that carry and transmit this code
DNA( deoxyribonucleic acid) the genetic material that is inherited from one generation to the next and is reproduced in each cell of an organism
RNA( ribonucleic acid) directs the synthesis of proteins, the ultimate enactors of the genetic program
Nucleotides monomers that consist of pentos( five carbon sugar) covalently bonded to a phosphate group a nitrogenous base
Pyrimidines one of the families of nitrogenous bases that include cytosine( C) Thymine(T)( only in DNA(, and uracil( U)( only in RNA) are characterized by six member rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Purines one of the families of nitrogenous base that include adenine(A) and guanine (G) add a five member ring to the pyrimidine ring.
Polynucleotide nucleotides are linked together into a DNA polymer
Double helix DNA molecule consist of 2 chains of polynucleotides spiraling around an imaginary axis
Created by: Brightonvball