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Basically Everything

3 basic types of cells 1.Animal 2. Plant 3. Bacteria
Unicellular one cell
Multicellular more than one cell
Cell Specialization ability to turn genes on and off
Cell Size only seen under microscope
Parts of Plant Cell Mitocondria, Cytoplasm, Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulem, Nucleous, Nuceolus, Nuclear Envolope, Cell Wall, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Peroxisome, Plasma Membrane, Chloroplast, and Vacuole.
Scientific Method: Step 1 Make an Observation
Scientific Method: Step 2 Research
Scientific Method: Step 3 Hypothesis
Scientific Method: Step 4 Experiment
Scientific Method: Step 5 Conclusion
Control Used for comparision, not being tested
Variable Athing in the experiment
Independent Variable Scientist changes it
Dependent Variable changes based on independent variable
Basic Organisms Characteristics 1.Made of cells 2. Requires Energy 3. Reproduce 4. Maintain Homeostasis 5.Organized 6.Respond to Enviroment 7. Grow and Develop 8. Exchange
Levels of Organization: Living 1.Cell 2. Tissue 3. Organ 4. Organ System 5. Organisim
Levels of Organization: Non-Living 1.Atom 2.Molecule 3.Organelle
Mass all the stuff an object contains
Volume LengthxWidthxHeight
Meter 100 cm, 1000 mm
Metric Chart Kilo, Hecto, Deca, Deci, Centi, Milli
Lynn Margulis Organelles have DNA. some organelles were once free
Rudolph Virchow All cells come from pre-existing cells. First to see cells dividing
Theodore Schwann Animals have cell. Co-FOunder of the cell theory.
Matthias Schleiden Plants have cells. Co-Founder of the cell theory
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek first to observe a living organism
Robert Hooke First to see cells. looked at cork. saw dead play cell walls
Cholorplast Photosenthesis
Nucleous Control center for cell. Contains DNA.
Ribosomes Make protein
Endoplasmic reticulem Smooth: Makes membrane Rough: Works on protein
Golgi Apparatus Finishes, labels, ships, and sorts protein
Cell Wall Supports and protects cell
Cytoplasm Medium for chemical reactions to take place
Cell Membrane Seperates Cell &outside. controls what enters and leaves cell
Vasuoles move material around cell storage
Lysosomes Digest, clean up and recycle
Mitocondria Make ATP for cellular resperation
Prokaryotic Simple.Reproduce Quickly. no nucleous. No Membrane bound organellles. Ribosomes in cytoplasm. DNA in nucleoid region. cell wall.
Flagella Tail used for movement
Eukaryotic Has nucleous. Has organelles. large and complex. Single or mulitcellular.
The Code of Life Chromosones in a specific order the the bases occur. ATCGTATGCGG
Nitrogenous Bases 2 Types- Purines and Pyrimidenes.
Purines Adenine ans Guanine Double ring bases. 2 rings of carbon.
Pyrimidines Thymine and Cytosine single bases. 1 ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
DNA Double Heleix Rungs of ladder-Nitrogenous Bases. Legs of ladder- Phosphate and deoxyriboes
Genes genetic material the codes for a specific trait. located on chromosomes.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Made or repeating molecules. Called the blueprint of life. Instructions for making proteins. in nucleous.
Genetic Diversity different arangments of nuclotides in acid (DNA). provides key to diversity.
Chromosomes made of DNA
1 DNA strand backbone of molecule is alternation phosphates,Ribose, and Nitrogeneous Bases
Hydrogen Bonds bases attract because of these. 1 is weak but there are about 1 million in a DNA strand
Amino Acids 20 types. those form thousands of proteins
Proteins large. made of chains of amino acids,. folding Amino Acid is critical for function
Triplet Code 3 nucleotides form a triplet of codon, codes a specific amino acid
Fredrick Griffith discovered deadly bacteria can change harmless bacteria into deadly ones.
Rosalind Franklin x-ray photo of DNA
Watson and Crick looked at Franklin's DNA x-ray. Purposed that DNA had a specific pairing between nitrogenous bases: Adenine--Thymine Cytosine--Guanine DNA made of two strands
Chargaff's Rule Stated that Adenine and Thymine must pair. Cytosine and Guanine must pair. they must pair equally.
Enzymes Digestion. Speed up chemical reactions. reused. made in Liver and Pancreus
Stucture Lock and Key method. specific enzymes breakdown specific foods.
Factors that affect enzyme activity 1.pH. 2.Temperature. 3.other substances (can be anything) optimal tem. 37C
4 types: Digestive Enzymes Amylase Lipase Pepsin Trypsin
Amylase In Saliva. Breaks down starch
Lipase in Pancreas. breaks down Lipids (fats)
Pepsin In Stomach. Breaks down proteins
Trypsin In small intestine. breaks down protein
Catalysts lower activation energy of reaction
Catslase breaks down hydrogen proxide
Lactase breaks down milk
Protease breaks down proteins
Lipase breaks down lipids (fats)
How enzymes work? substrates bind to active sites