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B3 Glossary AW

Glossary of Key Words for B3- Living and Growing

TermDefinition
Acrosome Part of the sperm that contains enzymes.
Active site The place on an enzyme where the substrate molecule binds.
Active transport In active transport, cells use energy to transport substances through cell membranes against a concentration gradient.
Aerobic respiration Respiration that involves oxygen.
Amino acids Small molecules from which proteins are built.
Anaerobic respiration Respiration without using oxygen.
Asexual reproduction Reproduction involving only one parent.
ATP Molecule used to store energy in the body.
Bacteria Single-celled micro-organisms which can either be free-living organisms or parasites (they sometimes invade the body and cause disease).
Biological catalysts Molecules in the body that speed up chemical reactions.
Cancer Life-threatening condition where body cells divide uncontrollably.
Capillaries Small blood vessels that join arteries to veins.
Cell differentiation When cells become specialised.
Chromosomes Thread-like structures in the cell nucleus that carry genetic information.
Clone Genetically identical copy.
Collagen Protein used for support in animal cells.
Denatured An enzyme is denatured if its shape changes so that the substrate cannot fit into the active site.
Diploid Cells that have two copies of each chromosome.
DNA Molecule found in all body cells in the nucleus- its sequence determines how our bodies are made (e.g. do we have straight or curly hair), and gives each one of us a unique genetic code.
DNA bases Four chemicals that are found in DNA, they make up the base sequence and are given the letters A,T,G and C.
Double circulatory system Where the blood is pumped to the lungs then returned to the heart before being pumped around the body.
Enzymes Biological catalysts that increase the speed of a chemical reaction.
Fertilisation When a sperm fuses (joins with) an egg.
Flaccid Floppy.
Gametes The male and female sex cells (sperm and egg).
Gene Section of DNA that codes for a particular characteristic.
Gene pool The different genes available within a species.
Gene therapy Medical procedure where a virus is used to “carry” a gene into the nucleus of a cell (this is a new treatment for a genetic disease).
Genetic engineering Transfer of genes from one organism to another.
Heamoglobin Chemical found in red blood cells which carries oxygen.
Haploid Cells that have only one copy of each chromosome.
Inbreeding Breeding closely related animals.
Insulin Hormone made by the pancreas which controls the level of glucose in the blood.
Meiosis Cell division that results in haploid cells.
Meristem Tips of roots and shoots where cell division and elongation takes place.
MessengerRNA Copy of a section on DNA used to carry the gene code to the ribosomes.
Metabolic rate Amount of energy a body needs.
Microbes Tiny microscopic organisms.
Mitochondria Structures in a cell where respiration takes place.
Mitosis Cell division that results in genetically identical diploid cells.
Multicellular organism Organisms made up of many specialised cells.
Mutation Where the DNA within cells have been altered (this happens in cancer).
Oxygen debt The debt for oxygen that builds up in the body when demand for oxygen is greater than supply.
Palisade cells Tightly packed together cells found on the upper side of a leaf.
Pharmaceuticals Medical drugs.
Plasma Yellow liquid found in blood.
Platelets Cell fragments which help in blood clotting.
Population Group of organisms of the same species.
Red blood cells Blood cells which are adapted to carry oxygen.
Respiration Process occurring in living things where oxygen is used to release the energy in foods.
Respiratory quotient (RQ) Equation used to determine the substrate used in respiration.
Ribosome Structures in a cell where protein synthesis takes place.
Selective breeding Process of breeding organisms with the desired characteristics.
Stem cells Unspecialised body cells (found in bond marrow) that can develop into other, specialised, cells that the body needs, e.g. blood cells.
Sterilise Killing all the organisms in an area, usually to mean killing micro-organisms.
Temperature coefficient (Q10) Equation used to calculate the effect of temperature on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction.
Therapy Treatment of a medical problem.
Tissue culture Process that uses small sections of tissue to clone plants.
Tumour Abnormal mass of tissue that is often cancerous.
Unicellular organism Organisms made of only one cell.
Veins Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
White blood cells Blood cells which defend against disease.
Created by: Brimsham