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EOI Review Vocab

Turgor Pressure the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
Abiotic Factor an environmental factor that is not associated with the activities of living organisms
Biotic Factor an environmental factor that is associated with or results from the activities of living organisms
Natural selection the process by which individuals that have favorable variations and are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do
Facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
Passive Transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Active Transport transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
mimicry the resemblance of an animal species to another species or to natural objects
Adaptation inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
RNA A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleotide that stores genetic information. Consists of phosphate molecule, sugar deoxyribose, and 1 of 4 nitrogen-containing bases Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), or Guanine (G), complex molecule containing the genetic...
Aerobic Respiration cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
Anaerobic Respiration the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen
Geographic Isolation form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water
Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Ribosomes organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Density-dependent factor a population-limiting factor whose effects depend on population density. e.g. resource availablity, competition.
Density-independent factor a variable that affects a population regardless of the population density, such as climate
Homologous having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions
Analogous corresponding in function but not in evolutionary origin
Heterozgous When two alleles for a gene are different (one is dominant and the other is recessive);for example Tt or Aa
Homozygous Dominant Both alleles for a trait are the same and dominant (AA)
Homozygous Recessive Both alleles (factors) for a trait are the same and recessive (aa)
Punette square a chart that shows all of the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Fungal Cell Cell wall composed of chitin, membrane bound nucleus, and a variety of other organelles. Lack: chloroplasts and central vacuoles, cell wall other than that same as an animal cell - get food from absorption. LACKS CHLOROPLASTS & CENTRAL VACUOLE
Animal Cell a cell containing ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, a vacuole, a nucleus, lysosomes, a cell membrane, mitochondria, and cytoplasm, a eukaryotic cell, enclosed by a plasma membrane and containing a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles
Plant Cell Eukaryotic cell that contains a cell wall, large vacuole and chloroplasts
Bacterial Cell example of prokaryotic cell, has a cell wall & cell membrane but NOT a nucleus. Unicellular, includes: cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes.,, possess only 1 chromo. may not contain any plasmids or have multiple copies or diff type of plasmid.
Created by: Christensent