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DNA Structure Vocab

TermDefinition
chromitid one of the two strands of a chromosome that becomes visible during meiosis or mitosis.
chromosome in a eukarotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protien;in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
chromosomal mutation Change in the chromosome structure, resulting in new gene combinations, Mutation that occurs at the chromosome level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis; caused when parts of chromosomes break off or rejoin incorrectly
DNA Replication the process of making a copy of DNA.
Gene sequence the sequence of genes in a DNA strand.
gene mutation A change in the sequence of the bases in a gene, which changes the structure of the polypeptide that the gene codes for.
karyotype an array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells at metaphase of mitosis and arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size.
DNA Ligase An enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA polynucleotide strands.
DNA polymerase ...
Double Helix A model of DNA that is composed of two nucleotide chains that wrap around each other to form a double spiral similar to a spiral staircase
Frameshift mutation A change in the genetic material that involves the insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides in a gene, resulting ina change in the triplet grouping of nucleotides.
Genetic Code The set of rules that dictates the amino acid translations of each mRNA nucleotide triplet.
Created by: Christensent