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Ch. 3

Cell Structure and Function

QuestionAnswer
Capsule Gelatinous layer surrounding the cells of blue-green algae and certain bacteria.
Cell Structural and functional unit of an organism; the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life.
Cell Theory One of the major theories of biology, which states that all organisms are made up of cells; cells are capable of self-reproduction; and cells come only from pre-existing cells.
Cell Wall Structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cell’s shape and rigidity.
Centriole Cell organelle, existing in pairs, that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division.
Centrosome Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles.
Chloroplast Membranous organelle that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis.
Chromatin Network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated proteins observed within a nucleus that is not dividing.
Chromosome Rodlike structure in the nucleus seen during cell division; contains the hereditary units, or genes.
Cilium (pl., cilia) Motile, short, hairlike extensions on the exposed surfaces of cells.
Cristae Short, fingerlike projections formed by the folding of the inner membrane of mitochondria.
Cytoplasm Contents of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane that contains the organelles.
Cytoskeleton Internal framework of the cell, consisting of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in cells, sometimes having attached ribosomes. Rough ER has ribosomes; smooth ER does not.
Endosymbiont Hypothesis Possible explanation of the evolution of eukaryotic organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotes.
Eukaryotic Cell One of the two major types of cells; contain a nucleus.
Flagellum (pl., flagella) Slender, long extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm.
Glycoprotein Protein in plasma membranes that bears a carbohydrate chain.
Golgi Apparatus Organelle, consisting of flattened saccules and also vesicles, that processes, packages, and distributes molecules about or from the cell.
Granum (pl., grana) Stack of chlorophyll-containing thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Lysosome Membrane-bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes for digesting macromolecules.
Matrix Unstructured semifluid substance that fills the space between cells in connective tissues or inside organelles.
Microtubule Small cylindrical structure that contains 13 rows of the protein tubulin about an empty central core; present in the cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
Mitochondrion Membrane-bounded organelle in which ATP molecules are produced during the process of cellular respiration.
Motor Molecule Protein that derives energy from ATP to propel itself along a protein filament or microtubule.
Nuclear Envelope Double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
Nuclear Pore Opening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of the nucleus.
Nucleoid Region of a bacterium where the bacterial chromosome is found; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope.
Nucleolus Dark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunits.
Nucleoplasm Semifluid medium of the nucleus, containing chromatin.
Nucleus Membrane-bounded organelle within a eukaryotic cell that contains chromosomes and controls the structure and function of the cell.
Organelle Small, often membranous structure in the cytoplasm, having a specific structure and function.
Peroxisome Enzyme-filled vesicle in which fatty acids and amino acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is broken down to harmless products.
Plasma Membrane Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from cell.
Plasmid Self-duplicating ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria.
Polyribosome String of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis.
Prokaryotic cell Lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus and organelles; the cell type within the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
Ribosome RNA and protein in two subunits; site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Secretion Releasing of a substance by exocytosis from a cell that may be gland or part of a gland.
Slime Layer Gelatinous sheath surrounding the cell wall of certain bacteria.
Stroma Fluid within a chloroplast that contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates during photosynthesis.
Thylakoid Flattened sac within a granum whose membrane contains chlorophyll and where the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur.
Vacuole Membrane-bounded sac that holds fluid and a variety of other substances.
Vesicle Small, membrane-bounded sac that stores substances within a cell.
Created by: Dugo