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Bio CH 1

Sci Method, living things and classification

Series of procedures that scientists use to solve scientific problems scientific method
hypothesis an educated guess or a prediction that can be tested
how do you test a hypothesis? perform an experiment
control the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared
variable something in an experiment that can change
independent variable the variable that the experimenter manipulates/changes
dependent variable the variable that is measured by the experimenter. this variable responds to the manipulated variable.
theory an explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge that is the result of many observations and experiments. This is not a guess or an opinion.
SI (International System) units the standard system of measurement scientists use to communicate and understand each others research and results.
length millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer
volume milliter, liter
mass gram, kilogram, tonne
organism any living thing
cell the smallest unit of life
homeostasis keeping the "home" stable. An organisms ability to keep the proper conditions inside no matter what is going on outside the organism.
traits of all living things organized into cells, respond to their environment, use energy, grow and develop, and reproduce
raw materials space to live, food and water
spontaneous generation the idea that living things come from nonliving things. ex: worms come from rain clouds.
biogenesis the theory that living things come from other living things. ex: mice give birth to mice.
Louis Pasteur a scientist in the 1800s that disproved spontaneous generation by doing an experiment with a swan-neck flask
how old is earth about 4.6 billion years old
how old is life about 3.5 billion years old
what do scientists believe the first life form on Earth is? single celled organisms (bacteria)
where do scientists believe life originated? in water/oceans
phylogeny evolutionary history of an organism or how it has changed over time
binomial nomenclature two-word naming system that is used to name various species- it consists of the genus and species of an organism
who invented binomial nomenclature Linnaeus
which two categories are used in a scientific name? genus and species
Two-word scientific names are used for _____ reasons help avoid mistakes, organisms with similar evolutionary histories are classified together, give descriptive information about the species, allow information about organisms to be organized easily and efficiently
dichotomous key detailed list of identifying characteristics that can be used to help identify and name a species. The list is arranged in steps with two descriptive statements at each step.
cladogram a graphic that shows evolutionary relationships between organisms
derived characteristic/ derived character trait
outgroup the organism on a cladogram that does not have any of the traits
ingroup any organisms that have some of the traits
species a group of organisms that can make fertile offspring
hybrid an animal, like a liger, that is made when two different species mate
Redi a scientist in the 1600s that disproved spontaneous generation with an experiment with flies and meat
Needham a scientist in the 1600s that said spontaneous generation happens with bacteria - his experiment was with broth
Spallanzani a scientist in the 1700s that disproved Needham's experiment by boiling the broth longer. His experiment supported biogenesis.
Created by: ruth.baker



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