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Vocab Words- Barker

AP Gov Barker Terms

QuestionAnswer
Republic: A government in which elected representatives make the decisions.
Great Compromise: Plan to have a popularity elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state.
Judicial Review: The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional.
Federalism: Government authority shared by national and state governments.
Checks & Balances: Authority shared by three branches of government.
Enumerated powers: Powers given to the national government alone.
Concurrent powers: Powers shared by the national and state governments.
Separation of powers: Constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government.
Reserved powers: Powers given to the state government alone.
Bill of Rights: First ten amendments to the constitution.
Police power: State power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals.
Mandates: Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants.
Political Culture: A coherent way of thinking about how politics and government ought to be carried out.
Prior restraint: Censorship of a publication.
Clear-&-present danger test: Law should not publish speech unless there was a clear and present danger of producing harmful actions.
Symbolic speech: An act that conveys a political message.
Exclusionary rule: Improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial.
Probable cause: Reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion.
Strict Scrutiny: A Supreme Court test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieve that goal.
Separate-but-equal doctrine: The doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities.
Equality of result: Making certain that people achieve the same result.
Equality of opportunity: Giving people an equal chance to succeed.
Random sample: Method of selecting from a population in which each person has an equal probability of being selected.
Sampling error: The difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time.
Split ticket: Voting for candidates of difference parties for various offices in the same election.
PAC (political action committee): A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations.
Incumbent: The person already holding an elective office.
Malapportionment: Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population.
Gerrymandering: Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to favor one party.
Primary election: An election held to choose candidates for office.
Soft Money: Funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate.
Background: A public official’s statement to a reporter that is given on condition that the official not be named.
Filibuster: An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action to the bill.
Marginal districts: Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically by less than 55 percent of the vote.
Whip: A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what members are thinking.
Pork-barrel legislation: Legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return.
Grid lock: The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different control different parts of the government.
Cabinet: The heads of the fifteen executive branch departments of the federal government.
Line-item veto: An executive’s ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature.
Impeachment: Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives.
Lame duck: A person still in office after he or she has lost a bid for reelections.
Plaintiff: The party that initiates a lawsuit.
Brief: A written statement by an attorney that summarizes a case and the laws and rulings that support it.
Stare decisis: “let the decision stand.” or allowed prior rulings to control the current case.
Amicus Curiae: A brief submitted by a “friend of the court.”
Logrolling: A legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support of his or hers.
Entitlements: A claim for government funds that cannot be changed without violating the rights of the claimant.
Created by: eileen_m