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Infection Control

TermDefinition
Source Reservoirs of infectious organisms. The organisms may be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic.
Host A site for new infection.
Contact Transmission Can be direct or indirect and is the most frequent mode of infection transmission. Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one person to another or when the infecting agent is transferred through a contaminated intermediate object or person.
Airborne Transmission Occurs by dissemination of particles through the air or dust. The particles remain suspended in the air for long periods of time.
Droplet Transmission Occurs primarily through coughing, sneezing, talking, or during certain procedures such as suctioning and bronchoscopy. Does not remain suspended in the air but are deposited on conjunctivae, nasal mucosa, or the mouth.
Common Vehicle Transmission Infection transmitted by items such as food, water, medications, and equipment.
Vectorborne Transmission Occurs through animals and insects such as rats and mosquitoes.
Standard Precautions Assumes every person is potentially infected or colonized with an organism that could be transmitted and applies to blood, all body fluid, secretions, and excretions except sweat, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes.
Transmission-Based Precautions Provide supplemental practices for airborne, droplet. and contact infections and are used in conjunction with Standard Precautions.
Hand Hygiene Includes both hand washing with either plain or antiseptic-containing soap and water and the use of alcohol based products that do not require water.
When to use hand hygiene? Performed after touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, & contaminated items whether or not gloves are worn. Also between patient contacts and tasks and procedures on the same patient to prevent cross contamination of different body parts.
Gloves Worn when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and contaminated items.
When to change gloves? Put on clean gloves before touching mucous membranes and non-intact skin. Change gloves after touching the patient and before touching the computer keyboards or other mobile equipment.
Mask Worn during procedures and patient care activities that are likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions.
When to wear a mask? Worn during procedures that require sterile technique to protect patients from exposure to infectious agents carried in the healthcare worker's mouth or nose. Also placed on coughing patients to limit spread of infectious respiratory secretions.
Gown Worn to protect skin and to prevent soiling of clothing during procedures and patient care activities that are likely to generate splashes of blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions.
Linen Handle used linen soiled with blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions in a manner that prevents skin and mucous membrane exposures, contamination of clothing , and trans of microorganisms to other patients and environments.
Airborne Precautions Used in addition to Standard Precautions for patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei or evaporated droplets that remain suspended in the air.
Droplet Precautions Used in addition to Standard Precautions for patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by large droplets generated during coughing, sneezing, talking, or during procedures such as suctioning, endotracheal intubation, etc.
Contact Precautions Used in addition to Standard Precautions for patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by direct and indirect contact.
Cleaning The removal of all visible dust, soil, and any other foreign material.
Disinfection Involves the destruction of many or all infectious organisms on inanimate objects.
What are the four levels of disinfection recognized by the CDC? Sterilization, High-Level Disinfection, Intermediate-Level Disinfection, and Low-Level Disinfection.
Sterilization Required to destroy all microorganisms, including bacterial spores. Necessary for critical items, those that enter tissue or vascular space, or those that through which blood flows.
ETO Chemical Sterilization Highly effective for heat and moisture sensitive items. Destroys microorganisms by preventing cell metabolism or reproduction. This method is toxic to the environment so must be used in accordance with OSHA and local governing agencies.
High-Level Disinfection Appropriate to inactive HIV, Hepatitis B, and Myobacterium Tuberculosis. Used for semi-critical items that contact mucous membranes or non-intact skin, such as respiratory and anesthesia equipment and endoscopes.
Intermediate-Level Disinfection Inactivates M.Tuberculosis, vegetative bacteria, most viruses and most fungi, but does not necessarily kill bacterial spores.
Low-Level Disinfection Can kill most bacteria, some viruses, and some fungi, but cannot be relied on to kill resistant microorganisms. Used for non-critical items, or those that have contact with intact skin.
Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)/Bleach A compound that is effective against a broad spectrum of microbes including gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as viruses.
Created by: akesselman