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T#7 Genetics

This stack includes both terms/defs AND "target practice" with images.

DNA molecule in the nucleus of a cell that contains instructions for how to make proteins (and how to run the cell) (DNA is the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid)
code information that has to be translated to find its meaning
double helix a twisted spiral staircase…the shape of DNA
nitrogen bases (nucleotides) molecules that make up the “steps” in the DNA “ladder;” there are four: adenine paired with thymine, and cytosine paired with guanine
triplet a group of three nitrogen bases that are the code for a specific amino acid
gene a sequence of triplets which all together are the code for one protein
mutation a permanent change in a gene that causes a protein to be made incorrectly
chromosome structure made of DNA in the cell nucleus that becomes visible when the cell divides, it contains hundreds or thousands of genes
genome all the DNA in the nucleus of an organism’s cell(s)
genetics the study of how traits are inherited
heredity passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait a characteristic that is caused by genes
allele different versions of a gene that cause the variations of a trait
dominant the form of a gene that covers up (dominates) the weaker form of the gene
recessive the form of a gene that gets covered up if the dominant form of the gene is present
Punnett Square a tool to predict possible offspring’s genes based on parents’ genes (invented by Reginald Punnett 50 years after Mendel’s studies)
homozygous when both alleles in a pair are the same (both dominant or both recessive)
heterozygous when the two alleles in a pair are different (one is dominant and one is recessive)
genotype a pair of capital and/or lower case letters to represent an organism’s genetic makeup
phenotype the physical trait that shows up because of an organism’s genotype
probability a measurement of the chance (likelihood) of an event happening
independent when the chance of one event happening does not affect the chance of another event happening
Created by: wholt