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Chapter 14

Introduction to Sing Components

UI(User Interface) Components Buttons, text fields, and other components with which the user can interact. Also called controls or widgets
Swing Components UI elements such as dialog boxes and buttons; you can usually recognize their names because they begin with J
Java Foundation Classes(JFC) A more general set of UI programming capabilities. JFC includes Swing component classes and selected classes from the java.awt package
Lightweight Components Almost all Swing components are said to be lightweight components because they are written completely in Java and do not have to rely on the local operating system code
Heavyweight Components Some Swing components, such as JFrames, are known as heavyweight components because they do require interaction with the local operating system
Container A type of component that holds other components so you can treat a group of them as a single entity
1. Method Inherited by the JFrame Class 1. Method[void setTitle(String)]..Purpose[Sets a JFrame's title using the String argument]... 2. Method[void setSize(int, int)]..Purpose[Sets a JFrame's size in pixels with the width and height as arguments]...
2. Method Inherited by the JFrame Class 3. Method[void setSize(Dimension)]..Purpose[Sets a JFrame's size using Dimension class object: the Dimension(int, int) constructor creates an object that represents both a width and height]...
3. Method Inherited by the JFrame Class 4. Method[String getTitle()]..Purpose[Returns a JFrame's title]... 5. Method[void setResizble(boolean)]..Purpose[Sets the JFrame to be resizable by passing true to the method, or sets the JFrame not to be resizable by passing false to the method]....
4. Method Inherited by the JFrame Class 6. Method[boolean isResizable()]..Purpose[Returns true or false to indicate whether JFrame is resizable]... 7. Method[void setVisible(boolean)]..Purpose[Sets JFrame to be visible using boolean argument true and invisible using boolean argument false]...
5. Method Inherited by the JFrame Class 8. Method[void setBounds(int, int, int, int)]..Purpose[Overrides the default behavior for the JFrame to be positioned in the upper-left corner or computer screen.
6. Method Inherited by the JFrame Class First two arguments are horizontal and vertical positions or JFrame's upper-left corner on desktop. Final two arguments set width and height.]
Pixels The picture elements, or tiny dots of light, that make up the image on your computer monitor
Look and Feel The default appearance and behavior of any user interface. You can request that Java's look and feel provide the decorations for the frame
JLabel A built-in Java Swing class that holds text you can display
add() Method You can add JLabel and other object to a JFrame object using this method. Ex: JLabel greeting = new Label("Good day");... aFrame.add(greeting);...
remove() Method Counterpart to the add() method. Removes object from a JFrame. Ex: aFrame.remove(greeting);
setText() Method Can be used to change the text in a JLabel by using this Component class method with the JLabel object and passing a String to it. Ex: greeting.setText("Howdy");
getText() Method Used to retrieve the text in a JLabel(or other Component) by using this method, which returns the currently stored String
Font Class A Java provided class from which you can create an object that holds typeface and size information.
setFont() Method Requires a Font object argument. To construct a Font object, you need three arguments: typeface, style, and point size.
Typeface Argument The typeface argument to the Font constructor is a String representing a font. Common fonts have names such as Arial, Century, Monospaced, and Times New Roman.
Style Argument Applies an attribute to displayed text and is one of three values: Font.PLAIN, Font.BOLD, or Font.ITALIC
Point Size Argument An integer that represents about 1/72 of an inch. Printed text is commonly 12 points; a headline might be 30 points
1. Giving a JLabel Object New Font To give a JLabel object a new font, you can create a FOnt object, as in the following... Font headlineFont = new Font("Monospaced", Font.Bold, 36);. The Typeface name is a String, so you must enclose it in double quotation marks.
2. Giving a JLabel Object New Font You can use the setFont() method to assign the Font to a JLabel with a statement such as... greeting.setFont(headlineFont);
Layout Manager To place multiple components at specified positions in a container so they do not hide each other, you must explicitly use a layout manager - a class that controls component positioning. Normal behavior of a JFrame is to use layout format BorderLayout
BorderLayout Created by using BorderLayout class. Divides a container into regions. When you do not specify a region in which to place a component, all the components are placed in the same region, and they obscure each other
Flow Layout Manager Places components in a row, and when a row is filled, components automatically spill into the next row
FlowLayout Class Three Constants Specify how components are positioned in each row of their container. These constants are FlowLayout.LEFT, FlowLayout.RIGHT, and FlowLayout.CENTER. Ex: FlowLayout flow = new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.RIGHT);
setLayout() Method Sets a JFrame's layout. Ex: aFrame.setLayout(flow);. A more compact syntax that uses an anonymous FlowLayout object is... aFrame.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
JTextField A component into which a user can type a single line of text data. Text data comprises any characters you can enter from the keyboard, including numbers and punctuation
Instantiating a JTextField Object To provide a JTextField that allows enough room for a user to enter approximately 10 characters, you can code the following.. JTextField response = new JTextField(10);... To add the JTextField response to JFrame frame, you write.. frame.add(response);
Editable JTextFields A JTextField is editable when it has the capability of accepting keystrokes. A JTextField is editable by default
setEditable() Method If you do not want the user to be able to enter data in a JTextField, you can send a Boolean value to this method to change the JTextField's editable status
JButton A Component the user can click with a mouse to make a selection
Tool Tips Popup windows that can help a user understand the purpose of components in an applications; the tool tip appears when a user hovers the mouse pointer over the component
setToolTipText() Method Used to define the text to be displayed in a tool tip by passing an appropriate String to it. Ex: button.setToolTipText("Click this button");
Event Occurs when a user takes action on a component, such as clicking the mouse on a JButton object
Event-Driven Program A program in which the user might initiate any number of events in any order
Source of Event Within an event-driven program, a component on which an event is generated is the source of the event
Listener An object that is interested in an event
addActionListener() Method Used to tell your class to expectnActionEvents
Preparing Your Class to Accept Event Messages You prepare your class to accept button button press events by importing the java.awt.event package into your program and adding the phrase implements ActionListener to the class header
java.awt.event Package Includes event classes with names such as ActionEvent, ComponentEvent, and TextEvent.
ActionListener Is an interface - a class containing a set of specifications for methods that you can use. Implementing ActionListener provides you with standard event method specifications that allow your listener to work with ActionEvent
ActionEvents The types of events that occur when a user clicks a button
actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) Method When a class =, such as a JFrame , has a registered as a listener with a Component such as a JButton, and a user clicks the JButton, the actionPerformed() method executes. The ActionLIstener interface contains this method
1. Responding to Events You use the following header, in which e represents any name you choose for the Event(the JButton click) that intiated the notification of the ActionListener(which is the JFrame)... public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e).
2. Responding to Events The body of the method contains any statements that you want to execute when the action occurs
setEnabled() Method Used to make a component available or unavailable by passing true or false to it, respectively
1. Alphabetical List of Some Event Listeners 1. Listener[ActionListener]..TypeOfEvents[Action events]..Ex[Button clicks]... 2. Listener[AdjustmentListener]..TypeOfEvents[Adjustment events]..Ex[Scroll bar moves]...
2. Alphabetical List of Some Event Listeners 3. Listener[ChangeListener]..TypeOfEvents[Change events]..Ex[Slider is repositioned]... 4. Listener[FocusListener]..TypeOfEvents[Keyboard focus events]..Ex[Text field grains or loses focus]...
3. Alphabetical List of Some Event Listeners 5. Listener[ItemListener]..TypeOfEvents[Item events]..Ex[Check box changes status]... 6. Listener[KeyListener]..TypeOfEvents[Keyboard events]..Ex[Text is entered]...
4. Alphabetical List of Some Event Listeners 7. Listener[MouseListener]..TypeOfEvents[Mouse events]..Ex[Mouse clicks]... 8. Listener[MouseMotionListener]..TypeOfEvents[Mouse movement events]..Ex[Mouse rolls]...
5. Alphabetical List of Some Event Listeners 9. Listener[WindowListener]..TypeOfEvents[Window events]..Ex[Window closes]
1. Some Swing Components and Their Associated Listener-Registering Methods 1. Components[JButton, JCheckBox, JComboBox, JTextField, and JRadioButton]..AssociatedListenerRegisteringMethods[addActionListener()]...
2. Some Swing Components and Their Associated Listener-Registering Methods 2. Components[JScrollBar]..AssociatedListenerRegisteringMethods[addAdjustmentListener()]...
3. Some Swing Components and Their Associated Listener-Registering Methods 3. Components[All Swing components]..AssociatedListenerRegisteringMethods[addFocusListener(), addKeyListener(), addMouseListener(), and addMouseMotionListener()]...
4. Some Swing Components and Their Associated Listener-Registering Methods 4. Components[JButton, JCheckBox, JComboBox, and JRadioButton]..AssociatedListenerRegisteringMethods[addItemListener()]...
5. Some Swing Components and Their Associated Listener-Registering Methods 5. Components[All JWindow and JFrame components]..AssociatedListenerRegisteringMethods[addWindowListener()]... 6. Components[JSlider and JCheckBox]..AssociatedListenerRegisteringMethods[addChangeListener())]
Event Handler A method that executes because it is called automatically when an appropriate event occurs
1. Selected Methods that Respond to Events 1. Listener[ActionListener]..Method[actionPerformed(ActionEvent)]... 2. Listener[AdjustmentListener]..Method[adjustmentValueChanged(AdjustmentsEvent)]...
2. Selected Methods that Respond to Events 3. Listener[FocusListener]..Method[focusGained(FocusEvent) and focusLost(FocusEvent)]... 4. Listener[ItemListener]..Method[itemStatedChanged(ItemEvent)]
JCheckBox Consists of a label positioned beside a square; you can click the square to display or remove a check mark
ButtonGroup Class When you create a ButtonGroup, you can group several components, such as JCheckBoxes, so a user can select only one at a time
JComboBox A component that combines two features: a display area showing a default option and list box that contains additional, alternate options
Generic Programming A feature of modern languages that allows multiple data types to be used safely with methods.



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