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MS-1 ch 52


TYPE of bone: have rounded ends/weight baring femur long bones
completely immovable joint: synarthrodial
freely movable joint: diathrodial (synovial)
slightly movable joint: amphiarthrodial
ex. of synarthrodial joint (completely immovable); cranium/skull
ex. of an amphiarthrodial-slightly movable joint: pelvis
ex. of a freely movable - diathrodial/synovial joint: elbow/knee
___ controls smooth and cardiac muscle: autonomic nervous system
__ & ___ controls the skeletal muscle: central & peripheral nervous system
which 2 types of muscles are "involuntary": smooth and cardiac
which type of muscle is 'voluntary' : skeletal
what causes a muscle to "atrophy": when muscles are not regularly exercised and they deteriorate from disuse
the aging process causes muscle fibers to ___: decrease in size and number, not matter how well-conditioned th eadult is
activities such as __ can reduce risk factors for osteoporosis and maintain muscle strength: walking
severe form of osteopenia – effects mostly thin white women osteoporosis
__&__ can slow the progression of atrophy and restore muscle strength: increased activity and exercise
condition causes postural/gait changes and predisposes the person to fractures: osteoporosis
decreased bone density/bone loss as one ages: osteopenia
osteoporosis is a disease that is a severe form of ___: osteopenia
occurs when synovial joint cartilage becomes less elastic / damaged as a person ages: osteoarthritis
osteoarthritis: joint cartilage becomes damaged w/ aging/continued use
swayback/ pregnancy/ posture where lumbar curve is exaggerated: lordosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature; older adults: kyphosis
scoliosis: C/S shaped spinal curvature/school-aged children
abnormalty in stance phase of gait: antalgic
abnormalty in swing phase of gait: lurch
lurch gait-shoulders move __ from side to side to help shift weight from one leg to another (swings shoulders)
lordosis is often seen in who: pregnant people
anxiety and depression are common in people with: chronic pain
the serum CK level begins to rise _ - _ hours after muscle injury: 2-4 hours
3-D image to detect musculoskeletal problems of vertebral column/joints: CT-computed tomography
used to detect tumors/less common today/detects unexplained bone pain: bone scan
imaging most appropriate for joints/bony tumore involving SOFT tissue: MRI
helps DIAGNOSE neuromuscular disorders and peripheral nerve disorders: EMG-electromyography
what is involved in an EMG test: temporary discomfort, mildsedation, electrical stimulation to show muscle contractions, degree of muscle activity
ARTHROSCOPY: fiberoptic tuve inserted into a joint for direct visualization of ligaments, articular surfaces of the joint
who is NOT a good candidate for arthroscopy: those who cannot flex the knee at least 40* and those with a joint infection
what is done after an arthroscopy: ice is used for 24 hours/extremity is elevated for 12-24 hours
lab test that shows acromegaly: serum phosphorus
lab test that shows mestatic cancers and Pagett's disease: ALP-alkaline phosphatase
2 lab tests that show muscular dystrophy: LDH & AST
lab test that reveals muscle trauma: CK (creatinine kinase
tests for mestatic cancers and bone fractures: serum calcium
proximal weakness: myopathy
distal weakness: neuropathy
assess for allergies to __: dairy products (causes decreased calcium intake)
drugs like __ can effect calcium metabolism / promote bone loss: steroids
who is most at risk for trauma related to motor vehicle crashes?? young men
lactose intolderance can cause inadequate __ intake: calcium
inadequate __, __ & __ indiet can slow bone/tissue healing: protein, vitamin C & vitamin D
eating disorders put people at risk for : osteoporosis related to decreased intake of calcium and vitamin D
2 genetic disorders/family history importance: osteoporosis & gout
Created by: lje0002