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Wittich CNS exam 2

FML

QuestionAnswer
Parasympathetics to the heart ambiguus
Parasympathetics to the ileum dorsal motor nucleus
Fibers terminate on the pterygopalatine ganglion superior salivatory/lacrimal
Sensory nuclei supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery nucleus of the spinotrigeminal tract
Receives afferents from the ipsilateral lateral gaze center abducens
Parasympathetic fibers join the glossopharyngeal nerve inferior salivatory
Motor to skeletal muscle of the larynx, pharynx, and esohpagus ambiguus
Receives chemoreceptor and barroreceptor afferents solitarius, inferior part
Receives afferents from pretectal nuclei Edinger - Westphal
Receives taste afferents Solitarius, superior part
Supplied by the anterior spinal artery hypoglossal
Parasympathetics to the stomach Dorsal motor nucleus
Receives afferents from the fastigial nucleus Vestibular
Motor to skeletal muscles of the larynx ambiguus
parasympathetics to the heart ambiguus
Receives afferents from the tongue Solitarius, superior part
Efferent fibers terminate on the pterygopalatine ganglion Superior salivatory/lacrimal
Fibers terminate on the inferior colliculus Cochlear nuclei, dorsal and ventral
fibers terminate on the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus Solitarius, superior part
Receives fibers from pretectal nuclei in the pupillary light response Edinger - Westphal
Efferent Fibers join the glossopharyngeal nerve Inferior Salivatory & ambiguus
Motor to muscles derived from arches III-VI ambiguus
Fibers pass posterior to the abducens nucleus Facial motor
Located at the same brainstem level as the superior colliculus Trochlear
Efferents to bilateral muscles Solitarius, Superior/rostral part
Receives chemoreceptor and barroreceptor afferents Solitarius, caudal/inferior part
Innervates muscles derived from Arch II Facial Motor
Receives cortical afferents ONLY from the contralateral cortex Facial Motor (Lower half)
Receives afferents from the contralateral lateral gaze center abducens
Fibers of the facial motor nucleus pass posterior to it Trigeminal motor
At the same brainstem level as the inferior colliculus Inferior Salivatory
Efferent fibers pass between the olive and the pyramid Abducens
Innervates muscles derived from Arch I Edinger - Westphal
Functional lobes of the cerebellum
Especially important in stereotyped movements Spinocerebellum
Especially important in fine motor control Pontocerebellum
Receives afferents from nucleus dorsalis Spinocerebellum
*Function could be affected by a lesion in the internal capsule Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum (i think all)
*Most of its afferents come from the cerebral cortex via reticular nuclei Spinocerebellum
Affects the lower motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
Receives afferents directly from the maculae Vestibulocerebellum
Granules cells of the cortex receive mossy fibers Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum
Deep nuclei receive inhibitory stimuli from the purkinje cells Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
Associated with the fastigial nucleus Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum
Receives afferents from the lateral cuneate nucleus Spinocerebellum
Affects lower motor via the medial longitudinal fasciculus Spinocerebellum
*Efferent fibers decussate in the superior cerebellar peduncle Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
Associated with the fastigial nucleus Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum
A lesion would likely result in nystagmus and truncal ataxia Vestibulocerebellum
Disturbances may result in speech problems Pontocerebellum
*Functions may be affected by a lesion in the internal capsule Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum (i think all)
Includes the interposed nuclei (globose & emboliform) Spinocerebellum
Roughly equivalent to the archicerebellum Vestibulocerebellum
The oldest part of the cerebellum (archicerebellum) Vestibulocerebellum
*Most of its afferents come from the cerebral cortex via reticular nuclei Spinocerebellum
Receives afferents from the lateral cuneate nucleus Spinocerebellum
Affects the lower motor neurons via the lateral vestibulospinal tract Vestibulocerebellum
Receives afferents from the nucleus dorsalis Spinocerebellum
Purkinje fibers of the cerebellar cortex terminate directly on brainstem nuclei Vestibulocerebellum
Receives climbing fibers Pontocerebellum
Purkinje fibers inhibit deep nuclei Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
Associated with the globose/emboliform nuclei (interposed nuclei) Spinocerebellum
Affects lower motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
*Efferents from the deep nuclei decussate in the superior cerebellar peduncle Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
Projects to the Vestibular nuclei Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum
Affects lower motor neurons through the rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
lesions would likely result in truncal ataxia and nystagmus Vestibulocerebellum
Deep nucleus receives inhibitory afferents from the cerebellar cortex Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum & Pontocerebellum
Afferents relay vast amounts of information from the contralateral cerebral cortex Pontocerebellum
Affects the lower motor neurons via the pontine and medullary reticulospinal tracts Vestibulocerebellum & Spinocerebellum
break
A person has a vascular lesion which interrupts the LEFT temporal loop fibers. Darken the blind VISUAL areas. Upper right 1/4th on both eyes
Which 2 layers separate in a detached retina? Photoreceptive layer and pigment layer
Which accessory auditory nucleus is required to discern distance and direction Superior Olivary Nucleus
In most people, receptive aphasia would result from an occlusion in the __________ artery middle cerebral
Deafness in the right ear is most likely caused by a problem located __________ peripheral right ear
The left lateral lemniscus is formed from fibers originating on __________ R/L Dorsal & Ventral Cochlear nuclei
What nucleus lies adjacent to the anterior limb of the internal capsule Globus Pallidus & Caudate
What is the basis of organization in areas 41 & 42 Tonotopic (organized by frequency)
What sensory epithelium responds to rotary movements of the head Crista ampullaris
Ganglion cell axons terminate on __________ in the pathway for vision Lateral Geniculate
Ganglion cell axons terminate on __________ in the pathway for pupillary dilation Hypothalamus
Ganglion cell axons terminate on __________ in the pathway for pupillary constriction Superior Colliculi
A person has visual blindness on the lateral half of both eyes. Where is the visual pathway most likely interrupted Optic chiasm
What is a likely cause of this interruption Pituitary Tumor
A person has visual blindness in the entire right eye. What is the most likely location of the problem Right Optic Nerve
In general, information from the macula projects to the __________ portion of area 17 Posterior
What nucleus/nuclei form/s the paleostriatum globus pallidus
Efferents from vestibular nuclei project to...(7) 1. Nuclei of CN III IV & VI 2. LMN (Medial and Lateral Vestibulospinal tracts) 3. Fastigial nucleus 4. Vestibulocerebellar cortex 5. Spinocerebellar cortex 6. Ventral Posterior Medial nucleus of thalamus 7. Reticular nuclei
Afferents to vestibular nuclei are...(6) 1. Vestibular apparatus 2. Extraoccular Nuclei (Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus) 3. Nuclei of CN III, IV, and VI 4. Purkinje fibers from vestibulocerebellar cortex 5. Fastigial nucleus 6. Reticular nuclei
Vestibulocerebellum affects extraocular nuclei by what descending tract medial longitudinal fasciculus
Vestibulocerebellum affects LMN (Lower Motor Neuron) of the lumbosacral spinal cord by what descending tracts lateral vestibulospinal & reticulospinal
In general, the purkinje fibers of the cerebellar cortex terminate on __________ upon which they have an __________ influence deep nuclei; inhibitory
A person has a vascular lesion which gives signs and symptoms of both BASAL NUCLEAR and PONTOCEREBELLAR dysfunctions. Where is the most likely location of the lesion Anterior limb of Internal Capsule
A person complains of dizziness and deafness in the R ear. Where is the problem R Vestibulocochlear nerve
Which 2 descending motor tracts terminating only in the cervical cord are important for coordination of head and eye position Tectospinal & Medial Vestibulospinal
Occlusion of the right labyrinthine artery may result in what two things Kinetic ataxia & hearing loss in the right ear
The fovea centralis has only ______ and is the area of __________ cones; highest visual acuity
The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on __________ in the pathway for conscious visual awareness Lateral Geniculate
The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on __________ in the pathway for consensual pupillary light response Superior Colliculi
The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on __________ in the pathway for pupillary dilation Hypothalamus
In most people, receptive aphasia may result from an occlusion in the __________ artery Middle Cerebral (LEFT most common)
Deafness in the right ear is most likely caused by a problem located __________ Right ear, periphery
In the basic auditory pathway, the right inferior colliculus projects to the __________ Right Medial Geniculate
What are three characteristics of disturbances in the vestibular system Truncal ataxia (lack of voluntary coordination of skel. m.); Nystagmus (uncontrolled eye movements; Nausea
The neostriatum is composed of __________ Caudate nucleus and putamen (which are major afferent receiving areas of the basal ganglia)
In general, the deep (central) nuclei of the cerebellum receive excitatory stimulation from __________ and inhibitory stimulation from __________ afferents out of cerebellum; purkinje cells
Which thalamic nucleus receives afferents from vestibular nuclei in the pathway for conscious awareness of head position and head movement Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus of the Thalamus
In the basic auditory pathway, the medial geniculate receives information from the __________ and projects to __________ Inferior Colliculus; areas 41 & 42
Weakness of the tongue on the L & Decreased discriminating touch in the R arm result in an occlusion of the __________ artery L Posterior Inferior Cerebellar
The lamellae of photoreceptor cells contain Rhodopsin
Which visual areas are represented in the posterior portion of the LEFT area 17 RIGHT Macula lutea
Ganglion cell axons terminate on __________ in the pathway to Edinger Westphal Superior Colliculi
Ganglion cell axons terminate on __________ in the pathway to preganglionic sympathetic nerve cell bodies Hypothalamus
Ganglion cell axons terminate on __________ in the pathway to area 17 Lateral geniculate
A person who is blind on the right-half of both eyes will have a visual pathway interruption where LEFT Optic tract
If a light is shined into the left eye of the person with this lesion, how do the left and right pupils respond Both left and right pupils will respond normally
A person with a pituitary tumor will have what visual deficit and where is the lesion Blind in peripheral half of both eyes; optic chiasm
Ganglion cells of the retina terminate on the __________ to affect circadian rhythms Hypothalamus
Give two reasons why the fovea centralis is the area of highest visual acuity Only cones with no vessels, no convergence (light travels straight to it)
A lesion of the LEFT temporal loop fibers will result in blindness where RIGHT, upper quadrant of both eyes
A lesion of the RIGHT parietal lobe will result in blindness where LEFT, lower quadrant of both eyes
A lesion of the temporal loop fibers or the parietal love is likely due to a lesion of the __________ artery middle cerebral
Stimulation of area 7 on one side will cause the eyes to move to the __________ same side (i.e. stimulate 7 on left and eyes move left)
Stimulation of area 8 on one side will cause the eyes to move to the __________ opposite side (i.e. stimulate 8 on left and eyes move right)
Which reticular nuclei are required for conjugate eye movements Vestibular (via MLF)
Choreiform movements/nystagmus suggest a lesion located in the __________ Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
Fibers of the lateral lemniscus terminate on the __________ Inferior Colliculus
Receptive aphasia is caused by a lesion likely located in the ________ Parietal lobe, area 22 specifically/wernicke's area
Break
What motor condition is described as: involuntary movements of the tongue and face induced by antipsychotic drugs Tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements of face and jaw)
What motor condition is described as: Hyperkinetic autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by widespread destruction of the basal nuclei and cerebrum Huntington's chorea (disease)
What motor condition is described as: Due to pathology of substantia nigra Parkinson's disease
What motor condition is described as: May be caused by chronic alcoholism Anterior lobe syndrome
What motor condition is described as: Results from attack by antibodies formed against the agent causing rheumatic fever Sydenham's chorea (disease)
What motor condition is described as: Signs and symptoms include truncal ataxia, nystagmus, and dizziness Flocculonodular lobe syndrome
Inability to smile on RIGHT side accompanied by an inability to close the eyes tightly; where is the lesion and where is decrease pain RIGHT peripheral facial nervel, decreased pain over RIGHT CHEEK
With a lesion of a peripheral nerve, what other deficits may be present Decreased salivation & Decreased taste sensation
Inability to smile on RIGHT side, but able to close eyes normally; where is the lesion and what general sensory deficits would be expected LEFT Lateral Cerebral Cortex; decreased pain over right cheek
Created by: Quickdraw03