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Fluid & Electrolytes

MSN Chapter 17

Hypernatremia Hypertonic NaCl Isotonic NaCl IV sodium bicarbonate Hypertonic tube feedings Near-drowning in salt water Water loss Diarrhea Osmotic diuretic therapy Diabetes Insipidius Primary hyperaldosteronism Cushing syndrome Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Hyponatremia Diarrhea Vomiting Fistulas NG suction Diuretics Adrenal Insufficiency Burns Wound drainage Excessive hypotonic IV fluids Primary polydipsia SIADH Heart failure Primary hyperaldosteronism
Hyperkalemia Excessive or rapid parenteral administration Potassium containing drugs/salts Acidosis Tissue catabolism (sepsis, burns) Crush injury Tumor lysis syndrome Renal disease Potassium sparing diuretics Adrenal insufficiency ACE inhibitors NSAIDS
Hypokalemia Diarrhea Vomiting Fistulas NG suction Diuretics Hyperaldosteronism Magensium depletion Diaphoresis Dialysis Increased insulin Alkalosis Tissue Repair Increased Epinephrine Starvation
Hypercalcemia multiple myeloma malignancies with bone metastasis prolonged immobilization Hyperparathyroidism Vitamin D overdose Thiazide diuretics Milk-alkali syndrome Acidosis
Hypocalcemia chronic kidney disease elevated phosphorus primary hypoparathyroidism vitamin D defciency magnesium deficiency acute pancreatitis loop diuretics chronic alcoholism diarrhea decreased serum albumin alkalosis excess of citrated blood
Hyperphosphatemia renal failure chemotherapy drugs enemas containing phosphorus excess ingestion hypoparathyroidism sickle cell anemia
Hypophosphatemia malabsorption syndromes recovery from malnutrition glucose or insulin therapy TPN alcohol withdrawal phosphate-binding antacids recovery from DKA respiratory alkalosis
Hypermagnesemia renal failure adrenal insufficiency excessive administration of magnesium tumor lysis syndrome DKA
Hypomagnesemia diarrhea vomiting chronic alcoholism malabsorption syndromes prolonged malnutrition increased urine output NG suction DM hyperaldosteronism
Respiratory Acidosis COPD barbiturate or sedative overdose chest wall abnormality severe pneumonia atelectasis Guillan-Barre syndrome mechanical hypoventilation
Respiratory Alkalosis Hyperventilation PE anxiety fear pain Stimulated respiratory center septicemia encephalitis brain injury salicylate poisioning mechanical hyperventilation
Metabolic Acidosis DKA Lactic acidosis starvation severe diarrhea renal tubular acidosis renal failure GI fistulas shock
Metabolic Alkalosis severe vommiting excess gastric suctioning diuretic therapy potassium defecit excess NaHCO3 intake excessive mineralcorticoids
Created by: ashduh93