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Cell Organelles

Bio 12 lesson 1.1B

TermDefinition
Cell wall outer layer of plant cells that supports and protects cell
cell membrane a phospholipid bilayer with embedded globular proteins that controls the flow of matter in and out of the cell
chromatin (Chromosomes/DNA) (chromatin when uncoiled): long strands of DNA found within the nucleus of a cell
christae short, fingerlike projections formed by folding of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
cytoplasm all the material (fluid) outside the nucleus, other than the organelles
cytoskeleton internal framework of the cell made of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments
gogli apparatus structures made of groups of flattened sacs used to store, package, and export proteins and other materials produced in the cell
lysosome lysosomes are vesicles filled with hydrolytic enzymes that help to digest food or break down old structures for recycling or removal
matrix the inner fluid space in the mitochondria; contains DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes that break down carbohydrates to provide energy needed to produce ATP during cellular respiration
nuclear envelope contains nuclear pores; controls the movement of materials into and out of the nucleus
nuclear pore opening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of the nucleus
nucleolus the dark, spherical area of the nucleus; aids in the production of rRNA (ribosomal RNA), a structural component of ribosomes
organelles subcellular structures surrounded by membranes
polysomes string of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis; also called polyribosome
ribosomes structures found on rough ER (some are free floating) that assemble proteins
rough endoplasmic reticulum rough ER is characterized by large numbers of ribosomes on its surface; it produces proteins that secreted by the cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum smooth ER lacks ribosomes and is responsible for the production of lipids, such as steroid hormones
vacuoles a membrane-enclosed storage structure that is usually filled with water and chemicals
vesicle vesicles are small vacuoles used to transport materials
plasma membrane a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole, and that regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm.
Created by: gwynneth