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Vitamins-Biochem

QuestionAnswer
Vitamin A Retinol. FN: Visual pigment constituent. D: Night blindness, dry skin. XS: Painful head, joints, throat; skin changes, alopecia. Leafy veggies.
Vitamin B1 Function Thiamine. Fn: Thiamine pyrophosphate is cofactor for ox-decarboxylation of alpha-ketoacids & branched AA DeH, cofactor for transketolase in HMP Shunt.
Vitamin B1 Deficiency Alcoholics & malnutrition. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Dry Beriberi: Polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting, Wet Beriberi: high output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy), Edema.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin, ADP+B2=FAD. Fn: Cofactor in REDOX. Def: Angular stomatitis, Chelosis (lip inflammation), Corneal vascularization.
Vitamin B3 Niacin/Nicotinic Acid. Tryptophan derivative + 3 ATP –(B6)-> NAD & NADP. Used in Redox. D: Hartnup dz (poor Trp absorption) & Carcinoid synd (high Trp metabolism), & INH use (lowers B6) Sx: Pellagra- Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia (+ Beefy glossitis)
Vitamin B5 Pantothenate (Component of CoA & FA synthase). D: Dermatitis , Enteritis, Alopecia, Adrenal insufficiency.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine (->->Pyridoxal phosphate) Used in transamination (AST, ALT), Decarboxylation Rx, Glycogen phosphorylase, heme synthesis, niacin synth. D: INH, Contraceptives: Convulsions, periph neuropathy, hyperirritability.
Vitamin B12 Function Cobalamin. Homocysteine methylxfaerase & methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Stored in liver, years+ reserves, made only by microorganisms.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, optic neuropathy, paresthesia, glossitis. Cause: Alcoholism, sprue, enteritis, pernicious anemia. Dx: Schilling test. Neuro sx: low B12-> myelin abnormal.
Folic Acid Fn: THF Coenzyme for methylation rx &nitrogenous DNA & RNA synthesis. In leafy greens. Small stored pool. Def: Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects.
Biotin Cofactor for Carboxylations: pyruvate -> oxaloacetate; acetyl-CoA -> malonyl-CoA; Propionyl-CoA -> methylmalonyl-CoA. Def: Avidin in raw egg whites sequesters biotin, antibiotics.
Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid. Fn: 1) hydroxylation of Proline & Lysine in collagen. 2)Keeps Fe reduced (2+) for use 3)Cofactor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase-> NE. Def: Scurvy! (bruising, anemia, poor healing, swollen gums)
Vitamin D Function D2: Ergocalciferol in milk. D3: Cholecalciferol from sun. 25-D3:Stored. 1,25-D3: Active form. Fn: Increase Ca & Pi absorption.
Vitamin D Xs & Deficiency Xs: hyperCa, poor appetite, stupor, in SARCOIDOSIS (macrophages convert D-> active form). Def: Rickets & Osteomalacia (soft bones), hypoCa tetany. Maternal milk deficient in D & K
Vitamin E Fn: Antioxidant (protects erythrocyte from hemolysis). Def: erythrocyte fragility & neurodysfunction
Vitamin K Fn: Gamma-Carboxylation of glutamic acids in blood clotting. Def: Neonates. High Pt & aPTT, normal bleeding time. Antibiotic use kills orgs that make K-> 2,7,9,10, C, S Def.
Zinc Deficiency Slow wound healing, hypogonad, reduced adult hair, predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis
Created by: Kyle Tiemeier