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Block II

Fluid & Electrolytes

The primary component of the body is water
Larger amount of body fat means Lower amount of water content
Older adults have less muscle mass and more fat content which means less body water
Fluid compartments in the body include intracellular (inside the cells) and extracellular (outside the cells)
ICF Intracellular fluid 2/3 (40%) of body weight - adult
ECF Extracellular fluid
ECF consists of the following interstitial fluid (fluid in the spaces between cells), plasma (liquid part of blood), transcellular fluid (fluid contained within specialized cavities of the body)
Amount of fluid secreted into and reabsorbed from the GI tract everyday 3 to 6 liters
Loss of fluids from vomiting and diarrhea concerns serious fluid and electrolyte imbalances
One liter of water weighs 2.2 lbs (1kg)
240 ml equals 8 ounces
Intake of 8 ounces equals 0.5 lbs (0.23 kg)
A loss of 4.4 lbs (2 kg) equals 2 liters
Electrolytes are molecules that dissociate or split into ions when placed in water
Cations positively charged ions
Anions negatively charged ions
Bicarbonate HCO3 (negative)
Chloride Cl (negative)
Phosphate PO 4 3 (negative)
Sodium Na (positive)
Potassium K (positive)
Calcium Ca (positive)
Magnesium Mg (positive)
Electrolytes are measured in mEq
Composition bewteen ECF and ICF is approximately the same between the two compartments
The main cation in ECF is sodium with small amounts of potassium, calcium, and magnesium
The primary anion in ECF is chloride with small amounts of bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate
The most prevalent cation in ICF is potassium with small amounts of magnesium and sodium
The most prevalent anion in ICF is phosphate with small amounts of some protein and bicarbonate
Normal Bicarbonate (HCO3 negative) - anion 22 -26
Chloride (Cl negative) - anion 96-106
Phosphate (PO 4 3 negative) - anion 2.4 -4.4
Potassium (K) - positive cation 3.5 - 5.0
Magnesium (Mg2) - positive cation 1.5 - 2.5
Sodium (Na) - positive anion 135 - 145
Calcium (Ca2) - positive anion (total) 8.6 - 10.2
Diffusion The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration.
Diffusion The two areas must be permeable
Diffusion Requires no external energy
Facilitated diffusion Involves the use of a protein carrier in the cell membrane - the protein carrier combines with a molecule.
Facilitated diffusion Passive and requires no energy
Glucose transport An example of facilitated diffusion
Active transport A process in which molecules move against the concentration gradient
Active transport External energy is required
An example of active transport is The sodium - potassium pump
Active transport - sodium moves out of the cell Potassium moves into the cell
Active transport's energy source is Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is produced in the cell's mitochondria
Osmosis The movement of 'water' down a concentration gradient (from low concentration to high concentration) across a semi-permeable membrane.
Osmosis Requires no outside energy sources and stops when concentration differences equalize or hydrostatic pressure builds and prevents any further movement of water
The greater the pressure (the higher the concentration) The greater the solutions pulling - osmotic pressure
Causes of increased venous pressure Fluid overload, heart or liver failure, obstruction of venous return (blood flow back to the heart), venous insufficiency.
Increased oncotic pressure results from
Created by: Block 1 Theory
 

 



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