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Science Finals study guide packet 3 - 6th grade - 2015

Pangaea The super continent that broke up apporoximately 150,000,000 BP- it began about 300,000,000 BP
Convection The transfer of heat through a heated fluid
Conduction The transfer of energy through direct contact
Radiation The transfer of energy through space
Accretion The process by which the earth formed through gravity bringing together the smaller particles of matter to form a planet
The crust The outer layer of the earth that is made out of rock- it makes the continents and the ocean bottom
The outer core The outer layer of the core- made of molten metals; iron and nickel- it gives the earth its magnetic fields
The inner core The center of the earth- made of iron and nickel that is solid
The Lithosphere The layer of the earth that is made of the upper layer of the mantle and the earth's crust
The Asthenosphere The part of the mantle below the lithosphere that has the consistency of asphalt- it contains the convection currents that cause the movement of the earth's plates
Sea Floor spreading The process that continually adds material to the sea floor by molten rock hardening and then being pushed by new molten rock(makes the Atlantic wider)
The San Andreas fault A transform boundary fault in California
Subduction The process where a heavier oceanic plate slides under a lighter continental plate (The Pacific plate goes under the Eurasian plate)
A transform boundary fault Is the place where two plates slide or slip past each other in opposite directions
An example of a rift(3) The Great African rift starts in the mountains of Eastern Africa and goes north under the Red Sea- The Rhine Valley is a rift that goes from the North Sea through Germany- The Mid-Atlantic ridge is an under-sea mountain range that divides the Atlantic Oce
What are and where are the 8 major plates of the earth? North American, South American, Eurasian, African, Nazca, Indo-Australian, Pacific, Antartic
What are and where are the 4 major layers of the earth? Inner core, Outer core, Mantle, and Crust
Sea Floor Spreading makes what? A new ocean bottom
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of what? A divergent boundary
What causes the magnetic fields of the earth? Convection currents of the outer core
What are common rocks of the crust? Granite and Basalt; hardened magma
What are examples of subduction? The Pacific plate subduction under the Eurasian plate- The Indo-Australian plate subducts u dear the Eurasian plate where India collides with South Asia. The Himalayan mountain range is formed where the two continental plates collide
Conglomerate Pebbles and other sediments are cemented together by minerals that are usually dissolved in water and the fill in the space between pebbles with the mineral- Sedimentary rock
Shale Layers of mud and clay are compressed by the weight of top layers forcing out water and making the layers stick together- Sedimentary rock
Limestone Layers of ground up seashells are compressed by top layers and partially dissolved by water making the layers stick together- Sedimentary rock
Sandstone Layers of sand compressed together by the weight and pressure from top layers pressing on the bottom ones and force the particles of sediment (sand) together- Sedimentary rock
Slate Is shale that has undergone pressure and heat to form a new rock that is harder- Metamorphic rock
Quartzite Is sandstone that becomes harder because new crystals have formed in the spaces between the sand particles- Metamorphic rock
Gneiss Is formed when the igneous rock granite is put under heavy pressure and heat- The large crystals of the granite becomes the bands of different minerals in the gneiss- Metamorphic Rock
Schist Is formed when igneous deposits are put under pressure and heat- often times the igneous rock is a mixture of different types- one famous schist deposit makes up the basement rocks of lower Manhattan- Metamorphic rock
Obsidian Looks like smooth glass- is sharp
Created by: Koutsantanou