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Exam Two

Microbiology Lecture

Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells?(3) 1.lack a nucleus. 2.lack membrane bound organelles. 3.range from 0.2-2.0 micrometers in diameter and 2.0-8.0 micrometers in length.
Giant Bacteria? Epulopiscium Fishelsoni: larger than paramecium cells.
Cell Envelope? Types(3) all cell layers surrounding the cytoplasm. 1.Glycocalyx(some bacteria have this). 2.Cell Wall(most bacteria have this). 3.Cytoplasmic/cell membrane(all bacteria have this)
Glycocalyx? coating or layer of molecules external to cell wall. Protective(against desication), adhesive(stick to other bacteria) and receptor function. It's composed up polysaccharides, polypeptides or both. This layer is hard to detect and digest in the body.
Slime Layer? Type of Glycocalyx, easily removed and water soluble. its found in the oral cavity and stick to teeth leading to plaque formation and causing tooth decay with acids it produces.
Capsules Type of Glycocalyx, firmly attached to cell surface. a thick capsule may cause threatening case, thin cause mild case and those without capsule may have no disease case at all.
Biofilm? living layer of microbes on a surface. its the primary residence of microorganisms in nature.
Archaeal Glycocalyces? they are sticky and gelatinous but have low function in Biofilm. it can be located in biofilms of oral gum disease.
Cell Wall? Function? semi-ridge casing that provides structure. the function is to maintain bacterial shape, prevent osmotic damage and holds flagella in place.
Peptidoglycan? found in bacterial cell walls, its made up of sugar backbone, linked together by Tetrapeptides, Criss-cross network forms a single massive molecule.
Gram Positive Cell Walls? it has a thick Peptidoglycan have 2 chemicals Teichoic acid and Lipoteichoic acid(anchors peptidoglycan to the cell membrane).
Acid-Fast Bacteria? are Gram Positive whose walls contain 60% of waxy lipid called Mycolic Acid.
Gram Negatice Cell Wall? have a thin layer of peptidoglycan layer. Outer Membrane: bilayer membrane(made of phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide) found on the outside of the Negative cell wall. serves as a barrier to antibiotics.
Lipid A? found in the gram negative cell walls that trigger fever, low BP, vasodilation, inflammation, shock, and blood clots.
Periplasmic Space? contain peptidoglycan and periplasm(gel that has enzymes that break down large molecules). its found between the cell membrane and outer membrane in gram negative cell walls.
Gram Positive Layer Order?(3) 1.Peptidoglycan(thick layer). 2.Periplasmic Space. 3.Cell Membrane.
Gram Negative Layer Order?(5) 1.Outer Membrane. 2.Periplasmic Space. 3.Peptidoglycan(thin layer). 4.Periplasmic Space. 5.Cell Membrane.
Bacteria without Cell Walls Group? Species? and Result in Gram Stain? Mycoplasmas group, Mycoplasma pneumoniae Species. They stain pink in Gram Stain.
Cell Membrane/Cytoplasmic membrane? Functions? made up of phospholipid bilayer studded with proteins. 1.regulate materials I&O. 2.energy production. 3.Cell wall synthesis. 4.secrete enzymes and toxins. 5.helps DNA replicate.
Mesosomes? pouches or folds into the cytoplasm to increase Surface Area. found mainly in gram positive.
Archaeal Cell Membranes? their lipids lack phosphate group. has Ether Linkages that are strong to allow to survive extreme environments.
The structures for Motility? 1.Flagella(used for locomotive) and 2.Axial Filaments(internal)
Flagella? allow bacteria to flee from harm and more toward favorable environments.
Types of Flagellar Arrangements? 1.Monotrichous: single flagella at one end. 2.Amphotrichous: single flagella at both ends. 3.Lophotrichous: multiple flagella at one end. 4.Peritrichous: flagella all around the surface.
Archaeal Flagella are used for locomotive but move slower than bacteria.
Endoflagella? found between outer membrane and cell membrane of spirochete bacteria. makes a corckscrew motion to dig in thick human tissue.
External Appedages? Fimbriae and Pilli
Fimbriae? bristle-like, shorter than flagella, hundreds on one cell, function is to stick to one another or other substances. important to Biofilm.
Pili? specialized fimbriae that have few to one cell, goes through the Conjugation process to transfer DNA for mating.
Archaeal Appendages? Hami function is to attach arachaea to surface with hook-like appendages.
Atrichous? bacteria without flagella
Polar? flagella located at only one end of the cell.
Cytoplasm? semi-fluid gel inside the cell. its made up of cytosol, inclusions and ribosomes.
Cytosol? made up of water, ions, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and wastes. the function is to create chemical reactions like Amino Acid production and degeneration of sugar.
Nucleoid? in the cytosol, is where the DNA is housed. the DNA is in a single circular chromosomes.
Inclusions? deposits of lipids, starch granules etc in the cytosol. the presence of specific inclusions is a diagnostic for several pathogenic bacteria.
Ribosomes? an organelle that synthesis protein. the ribosomes are similar in prokaryotic and eukaryotic except in size. Prokaryotic is 70 Svedberg units and eukaryotic is 80 Svedberg units.
Plasmids? are small molecule of supplemental DNA that helps enhance survivability in bacteria. The genes are for drug resistance and for enzyme/toxins production.
Cytoskeleton? internal network that uses fiber to help maintain cell shape. bacteria has a simple cytoskeleton
Endospores? is a defense strategy in bacteria to protect against hostile or unfavorable conditions. the cell forms a vegetative cap that can be located centrally, subterminally(near the end) and terminally(at the end). the cell is formed through Sporulation.
Vegetative Cell? it has a double membrane, spore coat, dipicolinic acid and calcium to protect that is resistant to drying, heat, radiation and lethal chemicals.
David H. Bergey? creator of Bergey's Manual which used two ways to identify and classify prokaryotes. Phenetic Classification and Phylogenetic Classification.
Gracilicutes? Type? Thin cell wall; Gram Negative.
Firmicutes? Type? Thick Cell Wall; Gram Positive
Tenericutes? Type? No Cell Wall; Mycoplasma
Mendosicutes? Type? Cell wall without Peptidoglycan; Archaea
How is Prokaryotes classified? based off of their rRNA fingerprints.
Characteristics of Mycoplasma? Lack a cell wall(pleomorphic), cell membranes contain sterols for strength, smallest living is .02-0.8 micrometers, and the colony has fried egg appearance.
Characteristics of Rickettsia? Gram-Negative, bacillus, often pleomorphic, very small, nonmotle, obligate intracellular parasite and spends part of its life cycle in an arthropod vector.
Characteristics of Chlamydia? gram-negative, coccoid and obligate intracellular parasite.
Antagonistic Relationship? when a microbe harm/kills another organism.
Synergistic Relationship? each member of the association gains better benefits as a team than alone.
Symbiotic Relationship? the members are interdendent that don't live outside the relationship
Microbial Growth? increase in the number of cells that occurs by cell division.
Cell Growth? increase in cell size.
Colony? parent cell and its division of descendants
CFU? Colony Forming Unit because some colonies come from more than one parent cell.
Binary Fission? parent cell duplicates its components, mostly unicellular organisms produce this way.
Budding? small outgrowth develops from the surface of an existing parent cell. common in yeast.
Generation Time? time required for a bacterial population to double in number. Average time take 1-3hrs
Bacterial Growth Curve? graph that plots the number of organisms growth over time. it comes in 4 phases: Lag Phase, Log Phase, Stationary Phase, and Death Phase.
Lag Phase? little to few cells, no cell division, increase cell size, active metabolic activity, empty tube.
Log Phase? Rapid cell division, Maximum metabolic rate, vulnerable bacteria, preferred for industrial lab purpose, generation time calculated and cells here are preferred for Gram Staining.
Chemostat? is the removal of old waste to maintain cells in the Log Phase.
Stationary Phase? the number of dead cells are equal to the number of new cells, metabolic rate declines, this is the survival period and endospores start to develop.
Death Phase? dead cells are greater than the number of new cells, more endospores than vegetation, and Involution occurs.
Involution Process? odd-shaped, abnormal cells that comes when deterioration of age occurs.
Measurement of Microbial Growth? used to determine severity of infection, microbial control and degree of contamination.
Direct Methods of Microbial Growth Measurement? Viable Plate Count(high population count), Membrane Filtration(population density is low), Microscopic Counts(stained Prokaryotes/large Eukaryotes), Electronic Counting(count large microbes), Most Probable Number(statistical estimation)
Indirect Methods of Microbial Growth Measurement? Turbidity(use of broth and spectrophotometer)
Requirements for Microbial Growth? its either Obligate(strict) or Facultative(flexible)
Ph? measure the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. Greater than 7 is Alkaline, Neurtral is 7, and Acidic is less than 7.
Acidophiles, Neutrophiles and Alkalinophiles? 1.Thrive on low PH (Bacteria). 2.Thrive on neutral PH (Protozoa/Algae). 3.Thrive on high PH (Fungi)
Aerotolerance? the requirement for oxygen 5types; obligate aerobe, obligate anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, aerotolerant anaerobe and microaerophile
Obligate Aerobe? Obligate Anaerobe? Microaerophile? 1.must have oxygen. 2.will die with oxygen. 3.need only small amouts of oxygen.
Facultative Anaerobe? Aerotolerant Anaerobe 1.uses oxygen only or metabolism, can survive without. 2.can tolerate oxygen but not needed for metabolism.
How to control Obligate Anerobes Oxygen? h cultured in an anaerobic glove box, anaerobic chamber or Gas-Pak.
How to control Microaerophiles? cultured in a candle jar.
Whate are the roles for Calcium and Iron? Calcium is need for endospores, cell walls(Gram-Positive) and exoenzymes. Iron is needed for growth of the bacteria.
General Purpose Media? used to grow broad spectrum of microbes.
Enriched Media? for complex organic substances
Defined Media? exact chemical composition is known.
Complex Media? exact chemical composition is unknown.
Selective Media? inhibit or facor the growth of certain microbe(s)
Differential Media? shows differences between microbes such as colony color or media color.
Anaerobic Media? used to culture anaerobes
Transport Media? used to maintain and preserve clinical specimens
Assay Media? used to test the effectiveness of antimicrobials
Enumeration Media? used to count the number of organisms in food or environmental specimens.
Created by: aneshia