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2015 BIO FINAL

GENETICS

TermDefinition
DIPLOID containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
HAPLOID having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES chromosomes of the same size and similar structure, have the same genes as each other in the same sequence but do not necessarily have the same allele of those genes
MENDEL FATHER OF GENETICS
LAW OF DOMINANCE 2 FACTORS, ONE FOR EACH OPPOSING TRAIT, ONE DOM ONE REC
LAW OF SEGREGATION THE TWO FACTORS SEPARATE AT RANDO DURING GAMETOGENESIS (FORMATION OF GAMETE AND SPERM) (REUNITE AT RANDO AT FERTILIZATION TO FORM A ZYGOTE)
LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT DURING GAMETE FORMATION ALL ALLELES FOR MULTIPLE CHARACTERISTICS UNDERGO THIS
PUREBREAD bred from parents of the same breed or variety
HYBRID the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule
HETEROZYGOUS TWO DIFFERENT ALLELES FOR A TRAIT (Aa)
HOMOZYGOUS TWO IDENTICAL ALLELES FOR A TRAIT (AA/aa)
MONOHYBRID CROSS CROSS FOCUSING ON ONE TRAIT (COLOR)
DIHYBRID CROSS CROSS FOCUSING ON TWO DIFFERENT TRAITS (COLOR AND HEIGHT)
MUTATIONS CHANGE THE SEQUENCE OF DNA THAT CAN BE PASSED DOWN THEREFORE CAUSING DISEASES AND ALLOWING EVOLUTION TO HAPPEN
GENE a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring
MENDEL'S SUCCESS BROUGHT EXPERIMENTAL AND QUANTITATIVE APPROACH TO GENETICS
MORGAN&DROSOPHILIA&SEX LINKED GENES RED EYED MALES AND FEMALES BUT ONLY WHITE EYED MALES-MALE SEX LINKED TRAIT FOR WHITE EYES NOT COMPATABLE WITH FEMALES
PHENOTYPE DESCRIPTION OF AN ORGANISMS APPEARANCE
GENOTYPE DESCRIPTION OF AN ORGANISMS GENETIC MAKEUP
RATIOS AND CROSSES 3:1 FOR MONOHYBRID CROSS, 9:3:3:1 FOR DYHYBRID CROSS
LAW OF PROBABILITY a fundamental rule relating marginal probabilities to conditional probabilities, it expresses the total probability of an outcome which can be realized via several distinct events - hence the name
PUNNETT SQUARE a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
PRODUCT RULE used to find the derivative of a function
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON GENE EXPRESSION PHENOTYPE DEPENDS ON ENVIRONMENT AND GENES; BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS
SEX CHROMOSOME a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds; GAMETE AND SPERM
SEX DETERMINATION WHETHER AN ORGANISM HAS GAMETES OR SPERM
TEST CROSS a way to explore the genotpye of an organism, CROSSING IT WITH A HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE ORGANISM
Created by: jchase1117