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2015 Bio Final

DNA and Protein Synthesis

TermDefinition
Protein Synthesis process in which cells generate new proteins
Transcription DNA to RNA, occurs in Nucleus
Translation mRNA TO tRNA TO PROTEINS, occurs in Cytoplasm with ribosomes
Nucleotide form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA (deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base) BACKBONE
STRUCTURE OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES CONNECTED BY A HYDROGEN BASE, SUGAR (DEOXYRIBOSE) PHOSPHATE AND NITROGEN BASE
PYRIMIDINES THYMINE AND CYTOSINE
PURINES ADENINE AND GUANINE
DNA VS RNA DNA:DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR, THYMINE, DOUBLE HELIX RNA:RIBOSE SUGAR, URACIL, SINGLE HELIX
REPLICATION DNA TO DNA, OCCURS IN NUCLEUS
KINDS OF RNA MESSENGER, TRANSFER, RIBOSOMAL
MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) CARRIES MESSAGE FROM DNA IN NUCLEUS TO RIBOSOMES
TRANSFER RNA (tRNA) TRANSPORTS THE AMINO ACID TO mRNA
RIBOSOMAL RNA (rRNA) MAKES UP THE RIBOSOME
GENE MUTATIONS CHANGES IN DNA SEQUENCE CAUSED BY ERRORS IN DNA REPLICATION OR MUTAGENS
POINT MUTATION
Protein Synthesis process in which cells generate new proteins
Transcription DNA to RNA, occurs in Nucleus
Translation mRNA TO tRNA TO PROTEINS, occurs in Cytoplasm with ribosomes
Nucleotide form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA (deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base) BACKBONE
STRUCTURE OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES CONNECTED BY A HYDROGEN BASE, SUGAR (DEOXYRIBOSE) PHOSPHATE AND NITROGEN BASE
PYRIMIDINES THYMINE AND CYTOSINE
PURINES ADENINE AND GUANINE
DNA VS RNA DNA:DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR, THYMINE, DOUBLE HELIX RNA:RIBOSE SUGAR, URACIL, SINGLE HELIX
REPLICATION DNA TO DNA, OCCURS IN NUCLEUS
KINDS OF RNA MESSENGER, TRANSFER, RIBOSOMAL
MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) CARRIES MESSAGE FROM DNA IN NUCLEUS TO RIBOSOMES
TRANSFER RNA (tRNA) TRANSPORTS THE AMINO ACID TO mRNA
RIBOSOMAL RNA (rRNA) MAKES UP THE RIBOSOME
GENE MUTATIONS CHANGES IN DNA SEQUENCE CAUSED BY ERRORS IN DNA REPLICATION OR MUTAGENS
POINT MUTATION mutation affecting only one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence (THE RAT ATE THE RAT)
BASE SUBSTITUTION evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified
FRAMESHIFT MUTATION genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three (THE ATA TET HER AT) (THE CCA TAT ETH ECE T)
CODON a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule
ANTICODON a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA
EXON PIECE OF RNA NOT TAKEN OUT DURING ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, exPRESSED
INTRON PIECE OF RNA TAKED OUT DURING ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, STAYS inSIDE THE NUCLEUS
GRIFFITHS EXPERIMENT SMOOTH CAUSES SICKNESS B/C PROTECTED BY CAPSOLE, IMMUNE SYSTEM CAN HANDLE ROUGH (ROUGH-MOUSE-DIED) (SMOOTH-MOUSE-DIED) (HEATKILLED SMOOTH-MOUSE-LIVED) (HEATKILLED SMOOTH+ROUGH-MOUSE-DIED) SOMETHING TRANSFORMED ROUGH INTO SMOOTH
CONJUGATION the temporary union of two bacteria or unicellular organisms for the exchange of genetic material
TRANSFORMATION BACTERIA ATTACHES TO STRAY STRAND
TRANSDUCTION process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus
Created by: jchase1117