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HSO109 pt 5


Define metabolism: All the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
What is catabolism? - It is the the breakdown of organic molecules - Releases energy
What is anabolism? - Involves the synthesis of organic molecules - Requires energy
How does catabolism (exergonic reactions) work? 1. Energy containing nutrients are broken down releasing ATP, NADH, NADPH and FADH (Chemical energy) 2. Products produced CO2, H2O and NH3
How does anabolism work? 1. Precursor molecules like amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nitrogenous bases are combined 2. This requires energy 3. End products (macromolecules) are made
What type of energy do catabolic reactions produce? - ATP or high energy compounds
Where do do catabolic reactions usually occur? - In the mitochondria
What is also produced in a catabolic reaction? - Heat energy
What is the function of anabolic reactions? - Used for maintenance and repair - Growth - Secretions - Nutrient reserves
What is the function a nutrient pool? - It is supply for mitochondria
Where does ATP come from (what's its source)? 1. Food intake 2. Complex carbohydrates, proteins and triglycerides are broken down into 3. Amino acids, glucose, glycerol and fatty acids
What are enzymes? - They are proteins - They act as catalysts (a+b -> c) - Depending on the energy, reactions are reversible - They are specific and have a characteristic shape - They are influenced by their immediate environment
What two theories exist on how enzymes work? - Lock and key theory - Induced fit theory
Which part of the enzyme reacts with the substrate? The active site
What is a substrate? The substance on which an enzyme acts
What influences the shape of an enzyme? Temperature and pH levels
What do low and high temperatures do to an enzyme? - Low temperatures deactivate an enzyme, but do not denature it, if heated back up to optimal pressure they will work normally again - A high level of temperature past an enzymes tolerance level will denature it, destroying it
When an enzyme and a substrate are bound together, what is it called? - enzyme-substrate complex
What is ATP made up of? ADP and one Pi molecule
What is the chemical formula for glucose? C6H12O6
What is cellular respiration? - Produces ATP and high energy compounds
What is the process that uses oxygen in order to create ATP called? Aerobic respiration
What is the chemical equation of aerobic respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H20 + 36-38ATP
What is the electron transport system? - A series of enzymatic reactions - Involves transport of electrons
What does AP stand for? - adenosine triphosphate
Created by: 974869485886242