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Ability to resist changes in pH in response to dilute acids && act as buffers ALKALINITY
Chemical ions that form alkalinity are HYXROXIDE, CARBONATE, BICARBONATE
Metal ions that contribute to alkalinity Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, and Potassium
End point Phenomena in the chemical laboratory which has the following definition: a chemical is added drop by drop to a sample until a color change occurs
Two types of alkalinity measurement Total alkalinity && Phenolphthalein Alkalinity
Laboratory Safety- Clothes Never Work Alone && Protective Eye wear && Lab Coats && Gloves
Laboratory Safety - Chemical Proper storage and labeling && date && ventilated area
Oxygen levels && Permissible 19.5 to 23.5 %
Methane levels && Permissible <0.5 %
Hydrogen Sulfide && Permissible <10 ppm
Carbon Dioxide && Permissible <10,000 ppm
Safe Drinking Water Act 1974 && Passed as law in the same year
Primary Contaminants The contaminants identified by EPA as harmful to human health
Maximum Contaminant Level M.C.L. primary contaminants must not exceed certain specified levels known as M.C.L.
Hardness Mainly caused by Calcium and Magnesium
Hard Water Standards 100 mg/L in hardness
Soft Water Standards 60 mg/L in hardness
Chromium Salt used extensively for industrial processes and may enter a water supply through the discharge of waste
Hexavalent Chromium Parameters Holding Time - none Preservation - 24 hours
Spectrophotometry quantitative measurement of the transmission properties as the function of wavelength
Widely Distributed in Rocks and Soil Manganese
Manganese Spectrometer Reading 525 nm
Trace Amounts of chloride are eliminated by... mercuric sulfate as a special reagent
Ferrous Iron Dissolved in Water
Manganous Iron Dissolved in Water
Oxidized Iron... forms iron rust
A pressure chamber used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure... autoclave
Used to measure the relative clarity of fluid by evaluating the amount of light scattered Turbidimeter
An instrument which measures the amount of light of a specified wavelength that passes through a medium Spectrophotometer
Sampling methos A. Vital Part of studying the water quality B. Source of Error in the process of obtaining water quality information
Grab Sample single water sample collected at no specific time
Composite Sample collection of individual samples obtained at regular intervals
One of the most important aspects of laboratory procedures Results are no better than the sample
Preservation must be checked for the following characteristics Required Volume Type of Container Preservation Maximum Holding Time
Separation methods decanting, centrifuging, decanting, filtering
Conductivity in water ability of a water to conduct an electrical current
Calcium Carbonate Saturation industrial heat exchanges && domestic water heaters
Over Saturated Calcium Carbonate in water would form precipitate
Under Saturation Calcium Carbonate in water would dissolve
Corrosive Water pH && alkalinity tends to be slightly lower than 'stable'
Calcium Carbonate Saturated Water Neither precipitate nor dissolved
Corrosive Water undersaturated
Super Saturated Scale Deposit
Zero Net Alkalinity Stable Water
Results in presence of metal ions in the water Color
Ways to remove true color from the water: coagulation, chlorination, or ozonation
Maximum Contaminant Levels For chlorine are... 0.08 ppm
Fast Chlorine Detection Method DPD Method
Higher Temperatures in DPD lead to... false positive results
Turbidity is removed by distillation
Fluoride Holding Time 28 days
Fluoride Spectrophotometer reading 570 nm
Chemicals Used For Fluoridation Sodium Fluoride Sodium Fluorosilicate Fluorosilicic Acid
Ways to remove alkalinity Add hydrochloric or nitric acids
Created by: Vsevolod-Notes