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HSO109 pt 3


What are cells? - Building blocks of all plants and animals - They have different shapes and functions - Function both individually and as a group
What are the two different classes of cells? - Sex cells (germ cells) - Somatic cells (every other kind)
What are the functions of the cell membrane? - Regulate exchange in and out of cell environment - Provide structural support
What is the cytoplasm made up of? - Cytosol - Organelles - Cytosol from extracellular fluid
What is cytosol? - intracellular fluid
What is it comprised of? - Nutrients - Ions - Proteins - Wastes
What are organelles? They are cellular structures with specific functions
What organelles aren't bound by a membrane? - Cytoskeleton - Microvilli - Centrioles - Cilia - Ribosomes - Proteasomes
What organelles are bound by a membrane? - Endoplasmic reticulum - Golgi - Lysosomes - Peroxisomes - Mitochondria
What is the cytoskeleton comprised of? - Microtubules - Microfilaments - Intermediate filaments
What are microfilaments? - They're made of protein called actin - They attach the cell membrane to cytoplasm - They interact with myosin to change cell shape 0 They are a constituent of microvilli
What are the function of intermediate filaments? - They maintain cell shape - Stabilise organelle and cell position
What are microtubules? - Made up of the protein tubulin - They are in all cells - They provide strength and rigidity - They help with cell shape - They have a roll with transpor - They provide structure for other organelles
What is the nucleus? - It is the control centre of the cell - It is the largest structure in the cell
What is the nuclear envelope? - It separates the nucleus from the cytosol - It has pores to allow for transport and communication
What is the function of the nuclear matrix? - It is for structural support
What does the nucleoli do? - Nucleoli makes rRNA - Nucleoli histones interact with DNA
What is DNA? - Comprised of 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, provides genetic information for cells - DNA is coiled and then supercoiled
What are ribosomes? - The site of protein synthesis - It is comprised of small and large ribosomal subunits - Protein synthesis occurs when these subunits join
What are the functions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? - Synthesis of proteins, CHOs and lipids - Storage of cytosolic molecules - Packages, modifies and transports material with in the cell - Detoxification
What is smooth ER? - Has no ribosomes - Synthesises lipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones, glycogen
What is rough ER? - Has ribosomes - Packages and modifies new proteins for transport within the cell
What is the golgi complex? - Modifies, packages and transports hormones and enzymes out of the cell - Maintains the cell membrane - Packages enzymes in vesicle for use in the cytosol
What are the three types of packaging vesicles? - Secretory - Membrane renewal - Lysosomes
What are lysosomes? - Specialized vesicles made in the golgi - Isolate the breakdown of molecules in the cell - Break down bacteria and other pathogens - Recycling of cell products
What are the mitochondria? - Site of energy production (ATP synthesis) - Are responsible for aerobic metabolism
Created by: 974869485886242