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Life Science Final

Ms. Hayes Life Science Final

List the six characteristics of living things 1. cellular organization 2. contain similar chemical 3. use energy 4. respond to their surroundings 5. grow and develop 6. reproduce
List 4 chemicals found in all cells 1.Proteins 2. carbohydrates 3. Nucleic Acids (DNA) 4. lipids (Fat)
Cells basic unit of structure and function in an organism
Unicellular single-celled organism
Multicellular organisms composed of many cells that are specialized to do certain tasks
stimulus a change in an organism's surrounding that causes the organism to react
response an action or change in behavior
development the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to create a more complex organism
asexual reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
Sexual the type of reproduction that involves two organisms creating a genetically different offspring
Autotrophs Organisms that make their own food
Heterotrophs Organism that cannot make its own food
classification the process of grouping things based on their similarities
Species grouping of similar, closely related organisms
3 main things in the Nucleus nuclear membrane DNA nucleolus
Ribosomes help the cell by making proteins
Lysosomes organelles that break down unused material and reuse it to get rid of waste
Spontaneous Generation the mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources
Homeostasis when you have a stable internal environment (ex: human temperature 98.6 degrees)
Why do scientists classify organisms? 1. To make it easier to study 2. once an organism is classified you know more about it
8 levels of Organization (in order) 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species
Binomial Nomenclature system used to name organisms
How to write binomial nomenclature -Always in italics -Capitalize the first letter of Genus -Keep all letters of special in lower case
What determines how organisms are placed into domains and kingdoms? Based on their CELL TYPE
Prokaryote simple cell without nucleus
Eukaryote complex cell with nucleus
Nucleus the control center of the cell that holds the DNA
Nuclear envelope membrane that surrounds the nucleus and controls what comes in and out of the nucleus
DNA hold the directions to tell the cell what to do
Nucleolus Produces ribosomes
Cell Membrane -barrier surrounding plant and animal cells -controls what comes in and out of cells -Food and water comes in... waste comes out
Cell Wall rigid barrier around plant cells only that helps protect and support the cell
Cytoplasm clear thick fluid that surrounds all organelles
Vacuole stores material; one large vacuole in plant cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum Carries materials from one part of the cell to the Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus Receives materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and sorts and packages them to be delivered to other parts of the cell or other cells in organism
Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell that converts energy from food
chloroplast Only found in plant cells; captures energy from sun (sunlight) and turns it into sugar (energy)
Elements any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Compounds two or more elements that are chemically combined
Inorganic Compounds that do not contain carbon Examples: water and sodium chloride (table salt)
Organic Compounds that contain carbon
Enzymes A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living things
6 elements that make up all living things S- Sulfur H- Hydrogen O- Oxygen P-Phosphorus N-Nitrogen C-Carbon
4 chemicals that make up living things Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates Sugar and starches Main energy source Makes the cell wall in plants
Lipids Fats, oils, and waxes Energy is stored in lipids Makes up the cell membrane **water resistant
Proteins Made up of amino acids Form the organelles inside the body Enzymes are made up of proteins
Nucleic Acid DNA RNA contains instructions that tell our cells what to do
Eukaryotes in the nucleus
Prokaryotes in the cytoplasm
Selectively Permeable some substances are allowed to pass through but not others
Active Transport way substances pass through the membrane ***requires energy
Passive Transport way substances pass through the membrane ***Does NOT require energy
Diffusion the process in which molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Osmosis the diffusion of water
Solvent substance doing the dissolving
Solute Substance being disolved
Hypotonic Hypo= low less solutes outside the cell water enters the cell
Hypertonic Hyper= move more solutes outside the cell Water leaves the cell
Isotonic Iso=Equal Equal amount of solute inside and outside Water does not enter of leave the cell
Why would a cell need to use active transport If molecules are flowing from an area of LOW concentration to HIGH concentration or If molecule is too large to flow in
Protein Pumps are responsible for picking up needed molecules outside the cell and bringing them inside by using energy
Endocytosis Enter when food molecules enter the cell
Exocytosis Exit When waste exits the cell
Photosynthesis process in which a cell captures energy from sunlight and converts it to make sugar
Chlorophyll pigment (green in color) inside of choloroplast that absorbs sunlight (its energy)
Cellular Respiration process in which cells get energy from food
Chloroplast a structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
Fermentation the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen
Aerobic requires oxygen Examples: animals, plantsk, algae
Anaerobic does NOT require oxygen Example: deep sea bacteria
Alcoholic Fermentation Used by yeast and bacteria Yeast breaks down sugar (without the use of oxygen) and creates alcohol and carbon dioxide
Lactic Acid Fermentation Used by humans Cells make energy when they are not receiving enough oxygen
Photosynthesis Equation? Water + Carbon Dioxide-----sunlight----- Oxygen + Sugar
Photosynthesis equation in words Turning water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen using sunlight
Photo Light
Synthesis Putting together
Cell Cycle the regular pattern of growth and division
Interphase happens before the cell actually divides it prepares the cell for division
Mitosis when the nucleus divides
4 phases of Mitosis P- Prophase M- Metaphase A- Anaphase T- Telophase
Cytokinesis the cytoplasm divides the cell cycle is complete
Virus tiny nonliving particle that invades and then multiplies inside a living cell
Characteristics of viruses * can only multiply inside a living cell *Host- cell that a virus infects
What does a virus look like? Smaller than cells Shape- circle, rod, robot (spider shaped) 2 parts- Protein coat and DNA
Bacteriophage viruses that infect only bacteria Ex: Ecoli
Active virus activates its DNA immediately and quickly takes over the cell
Hidden virus hides when it first enters the cell part of the virus's DNA becomes part of the cells DNA
How are viruses spread? 1. contact (rabies, chicken pox, ebola) 2. air (flu, virus) 3. bodily fluids (AIDS)
Bacteria single-celled prokaryotes shape- circular, rod-like, spiral surrounded by a cell wall
flagellum long whip like projections that can help the cell move
Autotrophs absorb suns energy to make food
Hetertrophs consume food
Fungus a eukaryotic organism that has cell walls, uses spores to reproduce, and is a heterotroph that feeds by absorbing its food
Created by: jessicabogusch