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BIOLOGY CH 1 AND 2

FINAL STUDY GUIDE

QuestionAnswer
What is the characteristics of life? organization, reproduction, homeostasis, obtain and utilize energy, and evolution.
What is a chromosome? a continuous molecule of DNA wrapped around protein in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell; also, the genetic material of a prokaryotic cell.
What is a codon? A triplet of mRNA bases that specifies a particular amino acid.
Housekeeping genes: genes turned "on" in all cells at all times.
Cell type specific genes: genes turned "on" in each cell that give a cell its special properties.
Developmental regulatory genes: genes specific to certain stages during growth and development of a person.
Inducible gene: genes not normally expressed but can be in response to external stimuli.
Who wrote Micrographia? Hooke
Who came up with: all living things consists of cells, the cell is the basic unit of structure of all organisms? Schleiden and Schwann
Who proposed that all cells come from other cells? Virchow
Who conducted an experiment in which supported Virchow's statement? Pasteur
What is simple/small, has no membrane bound organelles, uses DNA for genetic information, and enclosed in a membrane? Prokaryotic cells
What is large/complex, has membrane bound organelles, uses DNA for genetic information, and enclosed in a membrane? Eukaryotic cells
What type of reproduction, involves a single parent and is genetically identical? Asexual reproduction
What type of reproduction involves two parents and is genetically diverse? Sexual reproduction
What are the three domains of life? Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
What are the three factors that determines whether a substance is permeable to a cell membrane? Size, charge, and polarity
Which have a mitochondria? Animal and plants
Which have RNA polymerase? animal, plants, prokaryote
Which use glycolysis? animal, plants, prokaryote
Which have a cell wall? plants and prokaryote
Which have a nucleoid? prokaryote
Name two large organic molecules that are part of ALL membranes? Carbohydrates, and proteins.
Name three of the defining characteristics of the members of Kingdom Animalia? multicellular, heterotrophs, contain nuclei
Name three distinct structures, components and/processes that are common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Use DNA as genetic code, enclosed in a membrane, they both go through glycolysis.
What is a scientific question? observations and/or information from previous research. Not all can be answered scientifically.
What are the two main types of scientific inquiry? 1. Discoverable science/ observational 2. hypothesis based
What is a hypothesis? A tentative explanation for an observed phenomenon, it can be used if it is falsifiable. Must be possible to collect/observe data that does not support it.
What is an independent variable? what the investigator deliberately changes
What is the depenedent variable? What the scientist measures or records in order to learn the effect of changing.
What is the constant variables? All variables (with the exception of the variable being tested) must be kept constant!
What is a control treatment? in which the independent variable is eliminated or set at a standard value to ensure that the effect on the dependent variable is attributed to the independent variable. must be performed parallel to the experiment treatments.
Created by: lexibairdd