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Ecology and Taxonomy

TermDefinition
Linnaeus Swedish Botanist, Father of Taxonomy, laid foundation for binomial nomenclature
Taxonomy branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living things
Systematics process of determining evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
Phylogeny evolutionary history of organisms
Binomial System ease of classification and recognition (use of two names) Genus and species, Genus is capitalized and species is lower case, when typed is italicized
Genus vs species Genus=general, species=specific
Common Name vs Scientific Name no confusion with scientific, same in every geographical area
Species Name Latin by binomial nomenclature, always italicized or underlined, first is Genus, second is species
Species set of individuals closely related by decent of a common ancestor, group of organisms that produce fertile offspring in nature and interbreed freely
Information used for Classification structure biochemical cytological embryological behavioral fossil
Producer autotrophic organism as a source of food for other organisms in a food chain, plants
Consumers decomposers, scavengers, carnivores, herbivores, omnivores
Food Chains/Food Webs a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.
Population all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Community interacting group of various species in a common location
Ecosystem community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment
Biosphere total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists)
Symbiosis the living together of two dissimilar organisms
Parasitism non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host
Commensalism a relationship between individuals of two species in which one species obtains food or other benefits from the other without either harming or benefiting the latter
Mutualism the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other
Cycles in Nature water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle
Climax Communities An ecological community in the final stage of succession, in which the species composition remains relatively stable until a disturbance such as fire occurs.
Pioneer Community group of organisms that invade a new area in the process of biological succession
Primary Succession one of two types of biological and ecological succession of plant life, occurring in an environment in which new substrate devoid of vegetation and other organisms usually lacking soil, is deposited
Secondary Succession series of community changes which take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat
Niche a populations role in its community
Habitat a place where organisms live; an environmental situation in which an organism
Abiotic physical or nonliving factors that shape ecosystems (climate, energy, wind)
Biotic living component of a biological community; an organism or a factor pertaining to an organism or organisms
Pyramids multiplicative loss of energy in trophic levels
Taiga the sometimes swampy coniferous forest of high northern latitudes, especially that between the tundra and steppes of Siberia and North America
Tundra treeless biome characterized by extreme cold, wind, and permafrost (continuously frozen subsoil)
Grasslands drier, tropical areas and come nontropical areas characterized by the savannah with scattered trees
Desert driest of all terrestrial biomes, characterized by low and unpredictable rainfall, desertification is a significant environmental problem
Tropical Rain Forest experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall, mostly around the equator
Temperate Deciduous Forest grow where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees, most in North America have been drastically altered by agriculture and urban development
Pelagic open ocean, supports highly mobile animals such as fish, squids and marine mammals, phytoplankton and zooplankton drift in this zone
Benthic ocean bottom, supports a variety of organisms based upon water depth and light penetration
Intertidal Zones wetland at the edge of an estuary or ocean where water and land meet, salt marshes/sand and rocky beaches/tide pools, flooded by high tides and dry during low tides
Photic portion of the ocean into which light penetrates, photosynthesis occurs here
Aphotic vast and dark region of the ocean, most extensive part of the biosphere, no light but diverse and dense population inhabits this zone
10% Rule for Ecological Pyramids during the transfer of energy from one trophic level to the next only ten percent of the energy matter is stored as flesh, the remaining is lost during transfer, broken down in respiration, or lost to incomplete digestion by higher trophic levels
Invasive (Exotic) Species an organism (plant, animal, fungus, or bacterium) that is not native and has negative effects on our economy, our environment, or our health
Endangered Species a species of animal or plant that is seriously at risk of extinction
Created by: jchase1117