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Criminal Justice

Exam1 (chapters 1-4)

QuestionAnswer
Like the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law, criminal justice is a(n) Institution of Social Control
American criminal justice consists of what three main agencies? Police, Courts and Corrections
The term jurisdiction, as used in your text, means A politically defined geographical area
What are three types of charging documents? Felonies, misdemeanors, and juvenile offenses
The booking process typically involves Entering the suspect’s name, the charge, the suspect’s fingerprints and a photograph in the police blotter.
A(n) _____ outlines the formal charge or charges, the law or laws that have been violated, and the evidence to support the charge or charges. Indictment/Information
About _____ of criminal defendants plead guilty to the charges against them, in an arrangement called plea bargaining. 95%
Cases that are not resolved through plea bargaining or by a jury trial are decided by a judge in a Bench trial
Currently, what five general types of punishment are in use in the United States? Fines, probation, intermediate punishments, imprisonment, and death.
When politically conservative values are dominant in society, the principles and policies of ___________ seem to dominate the operation of criminal justice. The Crime Control Model
A major problem with the crime control model is that a presumption of guilt goes against one of the oldest and most cherished principles of American criminal justice. What is this principle? A person is considered innocent until proven guilty.
What guilt doctrines is the due process model based? The doctrine of legal guilt
In the case of a misdemeanor or an ordinance violation, a(n) _______ may be held. Summary Trial
If defendants ask for something special, such as a trial, the criminal justice assembly line is slowed and the efficiency is reduced
On which components of criminal justice was the most money spent in 2009? Police protection
A suspect becomes a defendant after A warrant is issued or an indictment is filed against them
Several modifications of classical theory are collectively referred to as Neoclassical theory
What best captures the classical criminologist's concept of "utility"? Utility is the principal that a policy should provide “the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number.”
What theories assumes that crime is committed by free-willed individuals who engage in a hedonistic rationality? The classical theory
What theory is based on the belief that criminals are physiologically different from noncriminals? Neoclassical (certain factors such as insanity might inhibit free will)
Who argued that criminals are, by birth, a distinct type, and that this type can be recognized by physical characteristics or "stigmata" such as enormous jaws, high cheekbones, insensitivity to pain, etc.? Cesare Lombroso
What did Lombroso call a person predisposed to crime? Atavist (a person who reverts to a savage type)
What theorists is associated with body type theories? Extension of Lombroso’s criminal anthropology; although William Sheldon is the best known body-type theorist.
Your text names what four types of heredity studies Family tree studies, statistical comparisons, twin studies, adoption studies
With whom are psychoanalytic theories of crime causation associated? Sigmund Freud
What theorists maintains that criminal behavior sometimes is chosen as an adaptation over other possible alternatives because it offers gratifications (psychological advantages) that could not be achieved otherwise? Seymour Halleck
For Emile Durkheim, the cause of crime is ________ that is, the dissociation of the individual from the ________. Anomie; collective conscience
What theory is associated with the first large-scale study of crime in the United States? Intelligence and crime
For the Chicago theorists, social disorganization is defined as what? Social disorganization is the condition in which the usual controls over delinquents are largely absent
According to Merton, ________ pursue the cultural goal of wealth only through legitimate institutional means. Conformers
According to Cohen, what is the cause of anomie for juveniles? For Cohen, it is caused by the inability of juveniles to achieve status among peers by socially acceptable means.
Sutherland's ________ states that persons who become criminal do so because of contacts with criminal definitions and isolation from noncriminal definitions. Theory of differential association
From the perspective of ________, people are expected to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so. Social control theory
One problem with labeling theory is that it tends to ________ the importance of the official labeling process. Overemphasize
Radical theories of crime causation are generally based on the ideas of Karl Marx
Men's control over women's labor and sexuality is Patriarchy
Created by: jvalles22