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Semester 2

Semester 2 Finals Review Vocab

Nucleotide A subunit (monomer) of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. Composed of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base.
Phosphate Group Component of DNA or RNA nucleotide
Deoxyribose A monosaccharide (sugar) found in each nucleotide in DNA
Nitrogen Bases Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine in DNA. Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine in RNA.
Genetic Code The code found in DNA that matches codons in mRNA to amino acids on tRNA
Gene A section of DNA that codes for a specific trait
Transcription The process where a copy of mRNA is made from one gene in DNA; occurs in the nucleus
Translation The process of making a protein, where tRNA matches amino acids to codons in the mRNA; occurs in the ribosome
Gene A unit of heredity; a portion of DNA that codes for a trait
Common Ancestor the most recent ancestral form or species form which two different species evolved
Fossil Record A term used by paleontologists to refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them
Biogeography The study of the geographical distribution of living things.
Molecular Homologies Genes shared due to common ancestry
Natural Selection The process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures.
Adaptations Any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment
Diversity Degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet
Evolutionary Mechanisms Mutation, migration (gene flow), genetic drift, and natural selection
Genetic Drift Change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling
Gene Flow The transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
Mutation A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene, which alters the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene
Recombination Change in genetic sequence, which increases variation among organisms
Ecological Succession How an area changes over time from an area that is uninhabitable to one that is able to support a healthy ecosysstem
Organism A living thing; exhibits all 5 characteristics of life (ORGAN)
Population A group of different organisms of the same species that life in the same area and interbreed
Community A group of different populations (different species) that live in teh same area.
Biotic Factor A living thing in an ecosystem; ex. plant, animal, bacteria
Abiotic Factor A nonliving thing in an ecosystem; ex. water, rocks, earth
Habitat Requirement Something necessary to make a good place to live: shelter and space, and access to food and water
Limiting Factors Any factor that limits the size of a population by restricting its numbers, reproduction, or distribution
Carrying Capacity The maximum population a habitat can sustain
Predation A relationship between two species where one species hunts (predator) and eats the other species (prey)
Competition A relationship between two species where they both require the same resource (food, water, shelter, space) and must compete for it
Parasitism A relationship between two species where one is helped and the other species is harmed (+,-)
Commensalism A relationship between two species where one species is helped and the other is not affected (+,0)
Mutualism A relationship between two species where they both are helped (+,+)
Autotroph An organism that can use photosynthesis to make its own food: "self-feeding"
Heterotroph An organism that cannot use photosynthesis to make its own food and must eat other organisms to survive; "other-feeding"
Trophic Level The position a oecies occupies in a food chain; ex. produce, primary consumer, secondary consumer
Food Chain A sequence of organisms that shows how energy is transferred from plants, to plant eaters, to meat eaters and so on
Food Web A combination of several food chains within an ecosystem
Ecological Pyramid A graphic representation of the amount of biomass present in each trophic level of a food chain; producers are always on the bottom, then primary consumers, then secondary consumers and so on
Microorganisms Living things that an only be seen with a microscope; ex. bacteria, protists
Biomes Areas with similar climate and conditions: ex. rain forests, grasslands, desert, wetlands
Carbon Cycle The cyclic movement of carbon atoms between living things (organic carbon) and their environment (inorganic carbon)
Eukaryote An organism with a nucleus. Examples: Plants, Animals, Fungi
Prokaryote An organism without a nucleus. Example: Bacteria
Amino Acid Monomer (subunit) that builds proteins
Nucleotide Monomer (subunit) that builds nucleic acids.
Codon A triplet of nitrogen bases (3 letters) that codes for one amino acid. Found on mRNA.
Created by: MsClaytonRUHS