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AP Comp Gov Unit II

Sovereignty, authority and power

QuestionAnswer
State The organization that maintains a monopoly over violence in a territory
Nation A group of people that are bound together by a common political identity
Institution A stable, long-lasting organization that helps to turn political ideas into policy
Sovereignty The ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference from either internal or external
Nationalism The sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another
Multinational State A state that contains more than one nation
Stateless Nation A people without a state
Core Area Areas within a nation with a large percentage of the population and economic developement
Periphery Areas within a nation outside of the core areas
Multicore State States with more than one core area
Regime A pattern of organization followed by a government
Direct Democracy When individuals have immediate say over many decisions that the government makes
Indirect Democracy Form of government with elected officials representing the people
Parliamentary System Citizens vote for legislative representatives, who in turn select leaders of the executive branch
Presidential System Citizens vote for legislative and executive representatives. The two branches operate separately
Semi-presidential System A prime minister co-exists with a president, who is directly elected by the people and who holds a significant degree of power
Head of State A role that symbolizes the power and nature of the regime
Head of Government A role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the government
Checks and Balances Ensures that power is shared and that one branch does not come to dominate the others
Corporatism A form of government in which the government is dominated by representatives of groups within the society. May or may not be democratic
Patron-client System Systems where politicians provide reciprocal favors and services to their supporters
Totalitarianism A term used to describe a particularly repressive, often detested, regime. Generally has a strong ideological goal that many authoritarian systems lack
Coup d’état A takeover of the government brought about by force, or the threat of force
Pluralism A situation in which power is split among many groups that compete for the chance to influence the government’s decision-making
Democratic Corporatism Form of corporatism where the dialogue between interest groups and the state is voluntary and the groups remain autonomous
Legitimacy The degree to which the population feels that an individual or group has the right to rule
Traditional Legitimacy The belief that tradition should determine who rules, and how
Charismatic Legitimacy Based on the dynamic personality of an individual leader or small group
Rational-Legal Legitimacy Rule based on a system of well-established laws and procedures
Common Law Law based on tradition, past practices, and legal presidents set by the courts through interpretations of statutes, legal legislation, and past rulings
Code Law Law based on a comprehensive system of written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes
Political Culture The collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on
Social Capital The amount of reciprocity and trust that exists among citizens, and between citizens and the state.
Consensual Political Culture Although citizens may disagree on some political processes and policies, they generally agree on how decisions are made, what issues should be addressed, and how problems should be solved
Conflictual Political Culture Citizens are sharply divided, often on both legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems
Liberalism Political ideology that places emphasis on individual political and economic freedom
Communism Political ideology that values equality over everything else, including freedom
Socialism Political ideology that shares the value of equality with Communism but is also influenced by the liberal value of freedom
Fascism Political ideology that rejects liberalism. Believes that some individuals in the state are inferior and some are superior. The state is empowered to mold the individuals in society to its vision of perfect
Magna Carta British document from 1215 that forms the basis of limited government that places restrictions on the power of monarchs
English Bill of Rights Document listing the rights retained by Parliament over law making and taxes
Constitution of the Crown Important documents, common law and customs that govern Great Britain instead of a written constitution
Thatcherism A conservative, capitalist movement led by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher that promoted privatization and free market economics
Noblesse Oblige Principle that persons of high rank or birth are obliged to act nobly and take responsibility for the welfare of the lower classes
Welfare State A government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health, public housing, pensions, and unemployment compensation
Cultural Homogeneity Societies with near universal social, religious, and political backgrounds
Boris Yeltsin Reformist president of Russia 1991-2000; headed the Russian Federation and proposed conservative transition to a market economy and immediate liberal economic reform (shock therapy)
Shock Therapy Sudden and dramatic reforms, put in place by Boris Yeltsin, that pointed the country in the direction of democracy and free-market economics
Oligarchy A system of governance dominated by a small powerful group in the state
Vladimir Putin President of Russia 2000-08 and 2012- present; consolidated power and crushed any opposition
Tsar All powerful monarchs of Russia, until 1917
Democratic-Centralism The Leninist organizational structure that concentrates power in the hands of the party elite. In theory, the party elites rule on behalf of the people
Russian Constitution of 1993 Ruling document of Russia; provided for a strong president, although the power was checked by popular election and lower house of legislature, required referendum of people to endorse it
Duma Russian lower house of the legislature, has actually existed during 19th century
Peter the Great Russian Tsar who wanted to modernize Russia with a stronger military and economic infastructure. Built St. Petersburgh
Catherine the Great Russian Tsar who, like Peter the Great before her, valued European technology in military and economics matters. Finally secured a warm water port for Russia
Window on the West St. Petersburg, a city built on newly conquered lands near Baltic Sea
Lenin's Bolsheviks Seized power in 1917 and ended rule of tars, renamed Russia the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Statism The idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nations
Glasnost Under Gorbachov, Soviet policies that opened up the political system and allowed for freedom of expression
Dynastic Cycles Long periods of rule over China by single family, punctuated by times of chaos, when the family lost its power and was challenged by a new, and ultimately successful, ruling dynasty
Mandate of Heaven A political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source, which could revoke the mandate if the rulers governed poorly
Sun Yat-sen Became the Chinese republic’s 1st president by leading the revolution of 1911
Mao Zedong Founder of the Chinese communist party and ruler of China from 1949-1976
Central Military Commission Important source of power in the Chinese government; the head of this commission usually has an important policy making role in the government
Deng Xiaoping Theory A practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization
Confucian Values Order, harmony, and a strong sense of hierarchy
The five key values of Maoism Collectivism, Struggle and Activism, Mass Line, Egalitarianism, Self-Reliance,
The Long March Long and dangerous trek of Mao's army across China during the revolution.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) Mexican political party
Camarillas Mexican patron-client networks, extends from the political elites to vote-mobilizing organizations throughout the county
Theocracy A government ruled strictly by religion
Secularization The belief that religion and government should be separated.
Zoroastrianism System of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster
Sharia Laws made through strict interpretation of Islam
Shiism A brand of Islam that distinguishes Iran from its neighbors, established as state religion by Ismail.
Sunni Majority sect of Islam. Most common in Saudi Arabia, Egypt and western Iraq.
Imam Shiite religious leader meaning "heir of Ali".
Hidden Imam 12th descendant of Ali, disappeared as a child, Shiites believed he would return one day
Pahlavi Shas "King of Kings" ruled Iran from 1925- 1979.
Ayatollah Khomeini First leader of the Iranian Revolution after 1979.
Jurist's Guardianship Khomeini’s concept that the Iranian clergy should rule on the grounds that they are the divinely appointed guardians of both the law and the people
Qom City south of Tehran, religious capital of Iran
The National Question A dilemma of how Nigeria should be governed, or even if Nigeria should remain as one nation
Goodluck Jonathan Until recently president of Nigeria who was elected in 2010; he is a Christian from the south who saw a series of electoral reforms to clean the political system of corruption
Ibrahim Babangida General ruled from 1985-1993; he was corrupt
Muhammadu Buhari Former dictator of, and current president of, Nigeria.
Bifara Civil War 1967-1970 political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the Southeastern (Igbo Christian) provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra
Created by: M.Brock