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science final

semester 2

the study of the moon, stars and other objects in space astronomy
side of the moon that always faces earth near side
side of the moon that always faces away from earth far side
different shapes of the moon that you see from earth phases
when the amount of light on the moon is increasing each night waxing
when the amount of light on the moon is decreasing each night waning
how long does it take the moon to have one full revolution and rotation about a month
percent of moon that is always lit up 50%
moon phase during which the moon is not visible from earth new moon
where the moon gets its light from sun
number of phases the moon goes through in one revolution 29-30
why can't we see the far side of the moon the revolution and rotation take the same amount of time
substance that is formed when two or more materials or substances are mixed together but do not chemically combine mixture
any pure substance that has two or more different elements that are chemically combined compound
a property that can be observed or measured without changing the substance into another substance physical property
a property that can only be observed by changing it into another substance chemical property
type of change that alters shape, size, location, or physical state of a substance, but not the chemical composition physical change
type of change that alters the chemical makeup of a substance chemical change
copper, h2, and He are examples of…. elements
blood and air are examples of... mixtures
water, salt, co2, and HCI are examples of... compounds
reacting with acids, the ability to rust, flammability, and ability to decompose are examples of a... chemical property
conducting heat or electricity, dissolving in water, shape, and state/phase are examples of a... physical property
burning a log and rusting are examples of a... chemical change
separating oil from water, melting an ice cube, and dissolving salt in water are examples of a... physical change
4 types of evidence of a chemical change 1. formation of a new gas 2. formation of a new solid 3. change in energy 4. color change
what is the law of conversation of matter matter can be changed from one form to another, but cannot be destroyed or created
type of chemical reaction that gives off heat exothermic
type of chemical reaction that absorbs heat endothermic
tool used to measure mass balance
tool used to measure volume of a liquid graduated cylinder
tool used to measure a volume of a solid metric ruler
characteristics of bases bases have a bitter taste and turn red litmus paper to blue. 8-14 on pH scale
characteristics of acids acids have a sour taste and turn blue litmus paper to red. 0-6 on pH scale
what happens to the properties of two substances when they are chemically combined they are changed/get new properties
5 characteristics of a mineral 1. have a definite chemical composition 2. must be solid 3. found naturally in or on earths surface 4. must be inorganic 5. have a crystal pattern
minerals resistance to scratching hardness
powdered form of a mineral streak
how the mineral reflects light luster
how the mineral breaks along flat surfaces cleavage
worst characteristic to use when identifying a mineral color
why is coal not a mineral it is made of organic things
main evidence that scientist use to determine what makes up earth seismic waves
what are the 4 main layers of earth 1. crust 2. mantle 3. outer core 4. inner core
what is earths crust made of oxygen and silicon
what is the mantle made of oxygen, silicon, and magnesium
what is the core of earth made of iron and nickel
true or false. the closer a location is to the focus of an earthquake, the stronger the seismic waves true
travels trough solids and liquids, travels the fastest p waves
causes the most damage because of rolling motion surface waves
travels only through solids, travels slower s waves
driving force for movment of earths plates in the mantle convection currents
process in which oceanic crust is destroyed as it moves beneath continental crust is subduction
process in which new oceanic crust is created at the mid-ocean ridge sea-floor spreading
where do most earthquakes and volcanoes form on tectonic plate boundaries
type of boundary where plates come together convergent
type of boundary where plates slide past each other transform
type of boundary where plates spread away from each other divergent
boundary that produces either a mid-ocean ridge or a rift valley divergent
boundary that produces folded mountains convergent
what type of boundary is the San Andres fault transform
type of boundary that destroys crust during subduction convergent
type of boundary that produces earthquakes all boundaries
rocks formed by volcanic action igneous
rocks formed by heat and pressure changing other rock deep underground metamorphic
rocks formed from compaction and cementation of sediments sedimentary
what type of crystals do igneous rocks that cooled slowly have big crystals
what type of rock most likely contains a fossil sedimentary rock
what kind of crystals will igneous rocks that cooled instantly have none or few
process in which rock is broken down by mechanical and chemical agents weathering
process in which water or wind moves sediments to another location erosion
process in which sediments settle out of water and wind deposition
process in which sediments are pressed together compaction
process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue sediments together cementation
how does a sedimentary rock turn into an igneous rock through melting and cooling
how does an igneous rock turn into a sedimentary rock through weathering and compaction/cementation
caves, canyons, valleys, and trenches are land features caused by... destructive forces
mountains, mid-ocean ridges, deltas, and till are land features caused by... constructive forces
how was the Minnesota river valley formed by a glacial lake
what geological process form an oxbow lake erosion and deposition
true or false. small sediment travels farther distances true
5 factors that cause runoff to increase 1. amount of vegetation 2. type of soil 3. amount of rainfall 4. shape of land 5. land use
how are runoff and erosion related runoff causes erosion
what climate is best for weathering hot/wet
most common type of weathering in new ulm freezing and thawing
true or false. freezing and thawing is mechanical weathering true
what agent of weathering and erosion causes the most damage? running water
Created by: taylorforstner