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AP Comp Gov Unit I

The comparative method and the types of nations we will cover

Empirical Data Information that is verifiable and non-subjective.
Normative Statement A subjective value judgement
Hypothesis A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Independent Variable A variable that influences the dependent variable
Dependent Variable A variable that is manipulated by the independent variable
Correlation When a change in one variable coincides with change in another variable
Causation The idea that a change in one variable causes or influences change in another
Three Worlds Approach A model of the world frequently used until the early 1990’s, largely based on Cold War politics
Civil Society The way that citizens organize and define themselves and their interests
Informal Politics Takes into consideration not only the ways politicians operate outside their formal powers, but also the impact that beliefs, values, and actions of ordinary citizens have on policy making
Civil Liberties Individual freedoms such as freedom of speech, belief, and assembly
Rule of Law Governing system operating transparently on a known set of rules (laws)
Neutrality of Judiciary A legal system that does not actively participate in politics and under which everyone gets the same treatment
Open Civil Society Allows citizens to lead private lives and mass media to operate independently from government.
Modernism A set of values that comes along with industrialization; secularism, rationalism, materialism, technology, bureaucracy and an emphasis on freedom over collective equality
Post-modernism A set of values that emphasizes quality of life over material gain
Post-Industrialism When the majority of the population is employed in the service sector
Primary Economic Sector Agriculture, very small since mechanized farming means that only a few farmers can produce enough food to feed all the workers in the industry and service sectors
Secondary Economic Sector Industrial, factories employ people to create tangible goods
Tertiary Economic Sector Service, industries such as technology, health care, business, legal services, finance, and education
Communist Manifesto Book written by Karl Marx that discusses his interpretation of history and his vision for the future (1848)
Proletariat Workers
Bourgeoisie The owners of factories and other means of production
Vanguard of the Revolution A group of revolutionary leaders who could provoke the revolution in non-capitalist Russia.
Democratic Centralism The communist "vanguard" would act of behalf of the people until they were ready for democracy
Co-optation Allocation of power through various political, social, and economic institutions
Nomenklatura The process of filling influential jobs in the state, society, or the economy with people approved and chosen by the Communist party
Social Mobility The opportunity or individuals to change their social status over the course of their lifetimes.
Maoism Shares Marx’s views of equality and cooperation, but Mao believed very strongly in preserving China’s peasant-based society
Market Based Socialism Socialism that adopts many of the essential features of capitalism
Centralism The ownership of private property and the market mechanism were replaced with the allocation of resources by the state bureaucracy
BRIC The fast-growing economies of Britain, Russia, India, and China
The Two Types of LDC Newly industrializing countries and less developed countries
Compressed Modernity Rapid economic and political change that transforms a country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions
Economic Liberalization Economic development based on free market capitalism taking place through privatization and marketization
Gross National Product (GNP) The total market value of all goods and services produced in the country.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) A statistical tool that estimates the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark
Per Capita GNP Divides the total market value of all goods and services produced by the population of the country
Post Industrial Societies Countries where most people are no longer employed in industry
Westernization (modernization) A model that states the biggest obstacle for LDC’s is tradition because holding on to old values and beliefs can hinder progress
Dependency Theory Holds that economic development of many countries in the world is blocked by the fact that industrialized nations exploit them
Import Substitution Based on the belief that governments in poorer countries must create more positive conditions for the development of local industries
Export Oriented Industrialization A strategy that seeks to directly integrate the country’s economy into the global economy by concentrating on economic production that can find a place in international markets
Asian Tigers Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore- whose economies boomed starting in the 1960’s
Democratization The process of developing a political system in which power is exercised either directly or indirectly by the people
Political Liberalization What a state goes through if it progresses from a procedural democracy to a substantive democracy through democratic consolidation, which eventually leads other states to recognize them as liberal democracies
Hybrid Regimes Have some characteristics of a democracy, but in many ways are still authoritarian regimes
Failed State A situation in which the very structures of the state may become so weak that it collapses, resulting in anarchy and violence that erupts as order breaks down
Created by: M.Brock



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