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Chapter 19

Nur 216/ Inflammation & the Immune Response

QuestionAnswer
Self-tolerance The ability to recognize self vs. non-self to prevent healthy body cells from being destroyed along with invaders. Possible due to the different proteins present on cell membranes.
Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) Found on the surface of all body cells of a person and serve as a "universal product code" or a "cellular fingerprint" for that person. Each person's HLAs are unique to that person.
Antigen A person's HLAs is foreign when introduced to that of another person's and can stimulate an immune response, which is called an antigen.
Stem cells Immature , undifferentiated cells produced in the bone marrow.
Pluripotent Stems cells each have more than one potential outcome of which mature blood cell they will become.
Inflammation Nonspecific body defense to invasion or injury and can be started quickly by almost any event regardless of where it occurs or what causes it.
Neutrophil - Inflammation Nonspecific ingestion and phagocytosis of microorganisms and foreign protein.
Macrophage- Inflammation Nonspecific recognition of foreign proteins and microorganisms; ingestion and phagocytosis.
Monocyte- Inflammation Destruction of bacteria and cellular debris; matures into a macrophage.
Eosinophil- Inflammation Weak phagocytic action; releases vasoactive amines during allergic reactions.
Basophil - Inflammation Releases histamine and heparin in areas of tissue damage.
B-lymphocyte- antibody mediated immunity Becomes sensitized to foreign cells and proteins.
Plasma cells- antibody mediated immunity Secretes immunoglobulins in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
Memory cell- antibody mediated immunity Remains sensitized to a specific antigen and can secrete increased amounts of immunoglobulins specific to the antigen on re-exposure.
Helper/inducer T-cell- Cell-mediated immunity Enhances immune activity through the secretion of various factors, cytokines, and lymphokines.
Cytotoxic/cytolytic T-cell- Cell-mediated immunity Selectively attacks and destroys non-self cells, including virally infected cells, grafts and transplanted organs.
Natural Killer cell- Cell-mediated immunity Nonselectively attacks non-self cells, especially body cells that have undergone mutation and become malignant; also attacks grafts and transplanted organs.
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) The higher the number, the greater the resistance to infection.
Left shift or bandemia Segmented neutrophils (seen at the right of the neutrophil pathway) are no longer the most numerous type of circulating neutrophils. More of the circulating neutrophils are bands (the less mature cell type found farther left of neutrophil pathway).
Five cardinal manifestations of inflammation Warmth, redness, swelling, pain and decreased function.
Immunity Adaptive internal protection that results in long-term resistance to the effects of invading microorganisms.
Antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) or humoral immunity Involves antogen-antibody interactions to neutralize, eliminate, or destroy foreign proteins produced by sensitized B-lymphocytes (B-cells).
Plasma cell Starts immediately to produce antibodies against the sensitizing antigen.
Memory cell Sensitized B-cell but does not start to function until the next exposure to the same antigen.
Agglutination A clumping action that results from the antibody linking antigens together forming large and small immune complexes.
Lysis Cell membrane destruction and it occurs now because of antibody binding to membrane-bound antigens of some invaders.
Complement activation and fixation Actions triggered by some classes of antibodies that can remove or destroy antigen.
Precipitation Antibody molecules bind so much antigen that large antigen-antibody complexes are formed.
Inactivation (neutralization) Process of making an antigen harmless without destroying it.
Adaptive Immunity Immunity that a person's body learns to make (or can receive) as an adaptive response to invasion by organisms or foreign proteins.
Cytokines Small protein hormones produced by the many WBCs and some other tissues.
Monokines Cytokines made by the macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes.
Lymphokines Cytokines produced by T-cells.
Created by: STorrez2