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Gen Bio Final Review

review for final exam

mitosis type of cell division that creates an identical copy of the parent cell
meiosis type of cell division that creates 4 unique sex cells (that have half the amount of DNA as the parent cell)
chromosome units of DNA and protein that determine a person's genetics
asexual reproduction involves 1 organism creating an identical copy of themself
sexual reproduction involves 2 organisms that create a unique offspring
fertilization when sperm meets egg
zygote the cell that forms after sperm meets egg
mutation and error within the letters of DNA or RNA
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a material present in nearly all living organisms
RNA ribonucelic acid, a material present in nearly all living organisms that has the blueprints for making proteins
heredity how genes are inherited (passed from parent to offspring)
genetics the study of heredity
alleles a version of a gene (can be dominant or recessive)
dominant allele the allele that is expressed and never masked
recessive allele the allele that is sometimes hidden. it is only expressed with both alleles in a pair are ressive
genotype the letters that make up an organisms genes (the genetic information)
phenotype the way the genetics are expressed (the way the organism's looks or the traits that it has)
homozygous when both alleles are the same (two dominant alleles or two recessive alleles)
heterozygous when both alleles are different (one dominant allele and one recessive allele)
punnet square a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross between two organisms.
species a group of of the same organisms that live in the same area and can interbreed
evolution genetic change over time
natural selection the mechanism of how evolution happens (survival of the fittest)
variation genetic differences among individuals of a single species
adaptation a trait/behavior that allows an organism to be better suited to its environment
embryology studying embryos to provide evidence of evolution
homologous structures structures within organisms that are similar. They show that those organisms use to share a common ancestor
vestigial structures structures within organisms that no longer serve a purpose (ex: tailbones in humans). They provide evidence of evolution
cladogram a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships between organisms
radioactive dating scientists determine the amount of radioactivity within a fossil/rock in order to determine how old it is
flagella a whip like structure that bacteria and other single celled organisms use to move around
fission asexual reproduction in bacteria
aerobe bacteria that need oxygen in order to digest their food
anaerobe bacteria that do NOT use oxygen in order to digest their food (oxygen is harmful to these bacteria)
saprophyte bacteria that feed on dead or decaying matter
nitrogen-fixing bacteria bacteria that live in the roots of certain plant and turn nitrogen into a form that plants use to grow
pathogen any organism that causes disease
prokaryote a cell WITHOUT a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
eukaryote a cell with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
endospore an outer covering that protects bacteria from harmful conditions. Some bacteria stay within endospores for 100s of years.
protist single celled eukaryotic organisms that tend to live in wet/moist environments
algae a plant-like protist
protozoan an animal-like protist
cilia hair-like structures that help bacteria and other one-celled organisms move around
pseudopod extensions of cytoplasm that ameoba use to move around - otherwise called "false feet"
hyphae chains of cells that make up the bodies of fungi
spore a reproductive cell of fungi and some plants that require water/moisture
club fungi a group of fungi that includes mushrooms. they keep their spores in club like structures called basidium
cuticle a protective layer around plants that prevents them from drying out
vascular plant a plant with roots, stem, and leaves. these plants have xylem and phloem for carrying water and food
nonvascular plant a plant without roots, stems, and leaves such as moss.
angiosperm a plant that keeps its seeds within fruits and flowers
gymnosperm a plant that keeps it seeds within cones
heterotroph a consumer- must eat/consume food
autotroph a producer- makes its own food
bilateral symmetry being able to divide an organism (vertically) into two mirror imaged halves
radial symmetry being able to divide an organism into multiple mirror imaged pieces (like a pizza)
Created by: ruth.baker