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CP Bio Genetics

what does homozygous mean? two of the same alleles
what does heterozygous mean? two different alleles
what does homozygous dominant mean? two dominant alleles
what does homozygous recessive mean? two recessive alleles
what is an allele? a version of a genetic trait
what is genetics? the study of inheritance/heredity
who is the father of modern genetics? Gregor Mendel
what is genotype? the alleles an organism has- the "letters"
what is phenotype? the expression of the organism's alleles - the "looks/traits"
what is a mutation? a change in the DNA
are all mutations harmful? no- some are harmful, some are beneficial and some don't cause any noticeable changes.
what is another word for regular chromosomes? autosomes
what is another phrase for the X and Y chromosome? sex chromosomes
how many alleles typically control a trait? two
how many alleles control blood type? three
when a trait is controlled by more than 2 alleles it is an example of _____ inheritance. multiple alleles
what do you call a diagram of several generations of family members that shows the occurrence of certain genetic characteristics? pedigree
what do you call a diagram that shows the genotypic and phenotypic outcome of crosses between two organisms? punnet square
why do sex-linked diseases show up in males more than females? females can be a carrier (and not have the disease) but since males only have on X chromosome they cannot be a carrier. They either have the sex-linked disease or they dont
what gender is XX female
what gender is XY male
who determines the sex of the child? dad - he is the only one that can pass down a "y" chromosome
in a testcross the unknown genotype is crossed with... a homozygous recessive individual.
why are testcrosses done? to determine an unknown dominant genotype
what is a dihybrid punnett square? one that shows two traits being tracked
what is a monohybrid punnett square? one that shows one trait being tracked
complete dominance when heterozygoous and homozygous dominant individuals have the same phenotype
incomplete dominance when an individual displays a trait that is intermediate (blended) between the two parents
codominant when both alleles for a trait are expressed in a heterozygous individual.
law of segregation when the two alleles for the same trait separate when egg/sperm are formed
law of independent assortment the alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during the formation of egg/sperm
germ cell or gamete egg or sperm
sex-linked trait a trait on a sex chromosome
linked gene genes that are inherited together (are very close together on a chromosome)
give an example of linked genes in humans red hair and freckles
chromosome map a map of genes on a chromosome.
if genes are only a few map units apart then they are probably... linked genes
germ-cell mutation mutations that do not affect the person but occur in their sex cells so they can be passed down to that person's offspring
somatic-cell mutation mutations that affect the person but are not passed down to that person's offspring
give an example of a somatic-cell mutation some types of skin cancer (you can get from overexposure to the sun)
deletion mutation loss of a piece of a chromosome
inversion mutation when a chromosome segment breaks off, flips around, and reattaches
translocation mutation when pieces of NON-homologous chromosomes break off and reattach to each other
nondisjunction when a chromosome fails to separate correctly and one gamete receives an extra copy of a chromosome while the other receives no copy.
which type of mutation causes down syndrome? nondisjunction at the 21st chromosome
point mutation a change at one single gene
frameshift mutation a deletion that causes the entire reading frame a gene to shift and no longer "make sense"
what type of mutation is a "substitution" point mutation
what type of mutation is a "insertion" frameshift mutation
pedigree family tree that can show genetic traits
polygenic traits influenced by several genes
give examples of polygenic traits eye color, hair color, intelligence, height, skin color...
what do you call the field of study that looks "above the genome" to see how the environment changes an organism's DNA? epigenetics
sex-influenced trait a trait that is influenced by a gender's hormones
give an example of a sex-influenced trait "pattern baldness" is more prevalent in men because they have more testosterone. the testosterone interacts with the gene to produce baldness.
what are two ways genetic counselors can test a pregnant woman for genetic conditions? amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling
what molecule can turn off and on genes? methyl groups
when are some critical times during a person's life that their epigenome might change? puberty and pregancy
what are some factors that can cause changes in the epigenome? stress, diet, exercise, chemicals in the environment.
are changes in the epigenome reversible? yes
how does a mother rat grooming/licking her pups affect the pup's epigenome? more grooming turns on a gene that is beneficial to mice health.
Created by: ruth.baker