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science final exam 9

What is the largest class of the Phylum Arthropods is the insecta
When an arthropod sheds his exoskeleton, it is called ecdysis
Some arthropods have jaws, therefore they are in the _____ group Mandibulates
Some arthropods have fangs or pincer, therefore they are in the _____ group chelicerates
The Endoskeleton of the starfish is made up of ossicles
The stage of complete metamorphosis consists of larva, pupa, adult
The grasshopper has 4 mouth parts Labrum, labium, mandibles, maxillas
Compound eyes cannot focus very well but they can detect Motion
When the head of an arthropod is fused with the thorax they form the cephalothorax
Small fingerlike projections that grow between the spines of the starfish and work in the respiration and waste removal Skin gills
Starfish uses their ___ as a simple circulatory system Body cavity
Five arms extending radially from a central point Radial symmetry
Crab, lobsters, and shrimp belong to the subphylum Crustacean
Muscular pump Heart
Condition when one lacks on of the clotting proteins Vena cava
Hardening of the arteries Arteriosclerosis
Voice box larynx
Grapevine clusters within the lung alveoli
Condition when one has a decreased level of RBC Anemia
Condition when too many WBC produced in response to cancer Leukemia
High blood pressure Hypertension
Build-up of fatty deposits in inner walls of arteries atherosclerosis
Blood pressure is measured Systolic/diastolic
The walls of the arteries are Thick so can withstand the pressure of a heart contraction
This covers the opening of the trachea epiglottis
A heart attack occurs when the heart doesn't receive enough Oxygen
What percentage of Americans are affected by cardiovascular disease 16%
The normal range of a systolic reading is 100-130
The walls of the capillaries are thin so gas exchange can occur
Normal range of diastolic reading 70-90
When one's diaphragm and ribs return to their original position, ________ is occurring Exhalation
Connective tissue that attaches muscles to bone Tendons
Stores fat Yellow marrow
Skull, backbone, and ribcage Axial skeleton
Skin disorder Psoriasis
Gives skin color Melanin
Fast spreading cancer Malignant melanomas
Shoulder blade Scapula
Largest organ of the human body Skin
Produces RBC in bones Red marrow
Shoulder attachment Pectoral girdle
Collarbone Clavicle
Clogged oil ducts Acne
Breastbone Sternum
type of skin cancer, high cure rate Carcinomas
99% water, 1% dissolved salt and acids Sweat
Hip attachment Pelvic girdle
The layer of actively dividing cells Basal layer
A pulled muscle is a Muscle strain
_____ is a synthetic chemical used to increase muscle size Anabolic steroid
The layer of skin which enables us to since pressure, pain and temperature Dermis
The brown pigment which gives you a tan Melanin
The layer of skin that is made up of mostly dead cells Corneal layer
____ is formed when the body has to transfer to anaerobic processes for energy Lactic acid
Goosebumps occur when Tiny muscles attached to hair follicles contract
They layer of skin that sloughs off in the shower Corneal layer
The layer of skin which acts like a shock absorber Subcutaneous tissue
elastic tissue connecting bones ligaments
arms and legs are examples jointed appendages
tissue that covers the body surface epithelial tissue
internal skeleton endoskeleton
tissue making up the heart cardiac tissue
where one bone meets another joints
tissue that lines cavities smooth tissue
maintenance of constant internal environment homeostasis
insulates mammals underhair
voice box larynx
grinding and crushing teeth molars
bulb-shaped structure hair follicle
laying shelled eggs oviparous
gives hair color guard hair
nutrients and oxygen to offspring placenta
birth living young viviparous
biting and cutting teeth incisors
time between fertilization and birth gestation
stabbing and holding teeth canines
sheet of muscles at bottom of ribcage diaphram
what 3 characteristic of mammals - teeth in both jaws - 4 chambered - warm blooded
flat, thin teeth used for cutting incisors
females supply milk from mammary glands
period of pregnancy gestation
rounded teeth for stabbing canines
body temperature determined by environment ectothermic
food source for developing embryo in egg yolk
outermost membrane of egg chorion
ridge on sternum for muscle attachment keel
song box of birds syrinx
ability to maintain constant body temperature endothermic
a lower jaw loosely connected to the skull is characteristic of snakes
baby chicks hatch with soft down on them precocial chicks
crocodiles and alligators belong to which order Crocadilia
the altricial chicks are naked, blind and helpless when hatched
snakes use what organ to "taste" the air Jacobson's
Only ____ of bird's air is exchanged through the lungs 25%
____ of the bird's air is routed into the air sacs 75%
Crocodilians are carnivorous
slender filament which make up mold hyphae
tangled mass of hyphae mycelium
obtain energy by absorbing organic molecules heterotrophic
mold which produces penicillin penicillium
the scientific name for baker's yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae
the mold which is used for fermenting soy sauce Aspergillus
the yeast responsible for thrush canidida albicans
fungi along heterotrophic bacteria are the _____ of the earth major decomposers
the two groups that make up fungi are yeasts and molds
Fungi in the phylum deuteromycota have been known to cause skin disease in human, such as - athletes foot - ringworm
the green/white mold we see often on fruits is Penicillium
aquatic organ used for respiration gills
allows fish to rise and sink at will swim bladder
sensory system of fish lateral line system
protective covering of the brain cranium
hard plate that covers the gills on a fish operculum
thin, bony disks that grow from cavities in the fishes skin scales
the swim bladder can generate ____ in order to cause a fish to rise carbon dioxide
the eye of frogs have a ___ that keeps the eye moist and protects then when underwater transparent membrane
the larval form of a frog, the tadpole, gets its energy mainly from algae, making it a ____ herbivore
using this sensory mechanism a fish can detect motionless objects by the reflections of the water lateral line system
these bony disks form growth rings so one can tell the age of a fish scales
caecilians gradually lost this due to a burrowing existence legs
individual segments that make up the backbone vertebrae
baglike respiratory organ for terrestrials lung
the small clusters present in the inner surface of a lung to increase surface alveoli
connected to bird lungs providing the increased level of oxygen required air sac
delivering oxygen to and removing carbon dioxide from body tissue circulatory system
oxygen boor blood deoxygenated
opening at the rear of a fish's cheek cavity gill slits
thin sheet of tissue that is located between the mouth and cheeks of fish gills
when the egg is fertilized outside the female's body external fertilization
the process of losing water dehydration
transformation of the larval stage into terrestrial adult form metamorphosis
blood leaks out of blood vessels and bathes the body's tissue directly open circulatory system
heavy fold of tissue that surrounds the visceral mass of the mollusk mantle
tongue like scraping organ radula
eats only plants or algae herbivores
final product of a worm's digestion castings
fleshy appendages of a marine annelid parapodia
the organ used for locomotion by the clam foot
marine mollusks breath with ciliated gills
when cutting open the Bivalve, one had to cut through the ____ muscle first adductor
terrestrial gastropods secrete _____ from their foot so that they can move mucus
when cephalopods quickly closed their mantle cavity forcing water to shoot forcefully out if the siphon, this is referred to as jet propulsion
members of the class Gastropoda include snails and slugs
member of the class Hirudinean include leeches
the segmented worm belongs to which phylum annelida
earthworms have ______ pairs of hearts 5
the class cephalopodia includes the following members squids and octopus
Bivalves are ____ to dig into the sand a foot
two of the most important eukaryotic features that evolved in protests are multicellularity and sexual reproduction
which habitat is least likely to harbor any species of Protista a desert
eukaryotes that di not belong to the fungus, plants, or animal kingdoms are classified as protists
protists obtain their energy by - being photosynthetic - ingesting food - absorbing their food
the phylum Rhizopoda use _____ for movement pseudopodia
the paramecium uses what for of locomotion cilia
algae would be defined as a photosynthetic protist
amoebas use what form of movement pseudopodia
protists have mechanisms for responding to stimuli in their environment, an example eye spot
algae obtain their energy by being phototrophs
flexible cytoplasmic extensions which are used for movement are pseudopodia
we benefit from protists being photosynthesizers since we consume the ______ they produce oxygen
what have 2 flagellas for movement Dinoflagellages
are spore formers sporozoans
segment of nucleic acids wrapped in protein coat virus
a rod-shaped bacteria bacillus
a spherical shaped bacteria coccus
a spiral shaped bacteria spirillum
a cell which looks purple under a microscope gram positive
a cell which looks pink under a microscope gram negative
a substance obtained from bacteria of fungi that are used a drugs antibiotic
who discovered penicillin alexander Fleming
a bacteria which produces more than 1/2 of our antibiotics Streptomyces
an organism which obtains its energy from sunlight is said to be photosynthetic
line the following organisms up according to size, smallest to largest bacteria, eukaryote, and virus virus, bacteria, eukaryote
a protein secreted by cells in the immune system in response to a foreign substance in the body is an antibody
an agent which causes disease is a pathogen
a bacterial virus whose capsid is a polyhedral head attached to a helical tail is a bacteriophage
gram negative bacteria is resistant to penicillin
cell division by binary fission bacteria
they are prokaryotes and lack a cell nucleus bacteria
they are single celled bacteria
they participate in mitosis eukaryotes
the following bacteria is either helpful or harmful. determine which and why: Streptomyces, staphylococcus, and rhizobium Streptomyces: help; it is a bacteria that produces more than 1/2 of our antibodies staphylococcus: harm; it is puss and is a toxin if you eat it rhizobium: help; it has the ability to be nitrogen fixed and is good for soil so farmers like this
explain how gram positive and gram negative bacteria are constructed and how it relates to the way they stain. gram positive:peptidoglycan – color purple: cell wall contains large amounts of peptidoglycans wall retains the purple die so they are purple gram negative:little peptidoglycan – color pink: very thin wall don’t retain purple die therefore appear pink
gram positive and gram negative; relate how this determines which antibiotics are effective against them, list examples gram positive: Penicillin: a antibiotic that kills gram-positive organisms by preventing the proper formation of the peptedcilen cell wall gram negative :Tetracycline: a antibiotic and gram negatives are also suseptical to this
list and describe the 3 methods that bacteria can obtain energy. Photosynthetic: autotrophs and obtain energy through the sunlight Chemoautotrophs: obtain energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide Heterotrophic: feed on organic material formed by other organisms
give examples where applicable for chemoautotroph and heterotrophic Chemoautotrophs: ex: Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter – do the process of nitrification heterotrophic: decomposers
Created by: Lauren Bowers