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Cell Struc. & Func.

Mr Camp - Topic 1

TermDefinition
active transport process by which cells use energy (ATP) to transport molecules through a membrane from Low to High concentration. Also used for movement for large molecules, ex: protein, starch, lipids EX: phagocytosis & pinocytosis
amino acid building block of proteins, connected by peptide bonds
cell basic unit of structure and function, contains organelles
cell (plasma) membrane boundary between cell and its environment, has receptors with specific shapes for specific signals, transports materials into and out of the cell
cell respiration breaks down nutrients to release chemical energy (ATP), types include aerobic & anaerobic
Aerobic cell respiration - EQUATION C6H12O6 + O2 --> H2O + CO2 + 36 ATP
chloroplast organelle of plants cells, green color (cholorphyll), site of photosynthesis
circulation flow of material within a cell and between parts of multicellular organisms
cytoplasm jellylike substance of a cell, holds the organelles
diffusion movement of molecules from High to Low concentration, NO ATP required, for small particles ex: amino acids, glucose, CO2, O2, type of passive transport
digestion process that breaks down large, complex substances into small, simple substances
enzymes type of protein, has an active site with a specific shape, works on specific substrate, speed up chemical reactions
excretion removal of METABOLIC wastes from the cell or body
metabolic wastes (4) water, salt, urea & carbon dioxide
homeostasis a.k.a. dynamic equilibrium, maintain constant stable internal conditions regardless of changes in the internal &/or external environment
hormone chemical message produced by an endocrine gland, has a specific shape, binds to receptors with matching shape, found on the TARGET, travels via bloodstream, causes a specific response in target
immunity body's ability to destroy pathogens
pathogen foreign substance, a.k.a. microbe, ex: virus, bacteria, fungus, germ
active immunity when the body is exposed to a pathogen and MAKES its own antibodies. EX: vaccine, become sick
vaccine shot or dead or weakened pathogens into an individual, forces body to make specific antibodies for the specific pathogen
passive immunity when the individual is given the antibodies for a specific disease. EX: medicine from doctors, breast-feeding (newborn)
antigen marker of the surface of a cell that allows individual's body to identify as "self" or "non-self". If "non-self" then WBC will attack (immune response)
inorganic substance that does not contain Carbon or Hydrogen. EX: water (H2O), Carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), salt (NaCl)
metabolsim all chemical reactions that occur in a cells of an organism. GRRRNETS
mitochondria "powerhouse" of the cell, site of respiration (aerobic & anaerobic), releases ATP from nutrients
nucleus controls the cell's metabolism (life functions)and stores genetic information (DNA)
organ made of different tissues combined to perform a specific function
organ system consists of several organs that work together to perform a major function of the body
organelle structure of a cell that carries out a specific function
receptor molecule protein molecule with a specific shape for specific signal (chemical message,hormone) , found on the surface of a TARGET cell, a specific reaction(response) will follow
reproduction process where an organism produces new organism of the same type, EX: sexual & asexual
sexual reproduction requires two parents, sperm and egg, offspring is a mixture of parent DNA, offspring has genetic variation
asexual reproduction only one parent required, offspring genetically identical to offspring (NO genetic variation)
5 types of asexual reproduction sporulation, binary fission, budding, regenration, vegetative propagation
Anerobic cell respiration process by which chemical bond energy stored in nutrients (ex: glucose) is released for our cells use, WITHOUT the use of oxygen, cause burning sensation in muscles (lactic acid), occurs during exercise (physical activity)
Anerobic respiration - EQUATION C6H12O6 --> H2O + CO2 + 2ATP + Lactic acid
ribosome found in cytoplasm of cell, site of protein synthesis
simple sugars Ex: glucose (C6H12O6), easily pass through cell membrane WITHOUT the use of energy
synthesis life process that combines simple substances into more complex substances
tissue group of specialized cells that perform a specific function
vacuole storage sacs within cytoplasm of a cell, contain either waste, water or food
Created by: mrcamp