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Piaget Cognitive development
Piaget 4 Stages Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operations, & Formal Operations
Sensorimotor Birth - 2 yrs Reflexes > Repetitive behavior > Imitation ^ Curiousity, Sense that self is different and separate from environment ^ Awareness of object permanence
Preoperational 2-7 yrs Tangible & concrete thinking & learning (from experiences) -Cant make generalizations/deductions - At end = more intuitive reasonig= begins understanding size, mass, & time
Concrete 7 - 11 yrs ^ Logical & Coherent thinking = Problem solving in concrete manner - Can sort, classify, collect, order, & organize environmental facts -Can manage numerous situational aspects at one time -Considers other points of view
Formal 12 - 15 yrs Abstraction & abstract symbols -Flexible & adaptable -Problem solving, develops hypotheses, test & conclude them -Moral, ethical, religious and social examination to determine self
Freud Psychological development - difference experiences during stages influence personality traits -Believed basic character formed by 5 yrs -Organized personality structure into 3 components 1. Id 2. Ego 3. Superego
Freuds Five stages Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, & Genital
Oral Birth - 18 months Pessimism vs. Optimism Trust vs. Suspicion Dependency & oral gratification
Anal 1- 3 yrs Llearning independence and control -Excretory functions & Self control (toilet training) Retentive vs. Overgenerous, Stubborn vs. Acquisition, Orderly vs. Messy
Phallic 3 to 6 yrs - Sexual, aggressive feelings, & guilt Genital area focus – recognizing gender differences Brash vs. Bashful, Gaiety vs. Sad
Latency 6 to 12 yrs Focus from egocentrism to group activities and group learning Intellectual and social growth
Genital (12 + y)— preparation for forming relationships and marriage 12+ yrs Forming relationships & preparing for marriage
Erikson Psychosocial approach - Social development & role of play
Birth - 18 mos (Erikson) Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust
18 mos - 3 years (Erikson) Early Childhood Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
3-5 years (Erikson) Late Childhood Initiative vs. Guilt
5 - 12 years (Erikson) School Age Industry vs. Inferiority
12 - 18 years (Erikson) Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion
18 - 25 years (Erikson) Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation
25 - 60 years (Erikson) Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation -Working years. Major task: Achieve life goals & considering the welfare of future generations.
60 years to death (Erikson) Late Adulthood Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Infancy Trust: Affection, gratification, recognition; trust & hope - primary caregiver used for exploration vs. Mistrust: Withdrawn
Early Childhood Autonomy: Cooperation, self-control & expression, expressive, develops will. vs. Shame & Doubt: Defiance, compulsive, overly compliant.
Late Childhood Initiative: Realistic goals, evaluates self, exploration, imatation, imagination, tests reality, DEVELOPS PURPOSE & self-motivation. vs. Guilt: Jealousy, guilt, and denial.
School Age Industry: Sense of duty, self confidence, performs real tasks, competence vs. Inferiority: School and social drop out, incompetant
Adolescence Identity: Commitments, sense of self, role experimentation, sex & fidelity. vs. Role Confusion: Ambivalent, confused, indecisive; antisocial
Young Adulthood Intimacy: Commits to love, work relationships- sustain mutual relationships vs. Isolation: Superficial, impersonal, biased
Adulthood Generativity: Productive, creative, caring vs. Stagnation: Self indulgent
Late adulthood Ego integrity: Appreciates past, present & future; self acceptance & worth vs. Despair: Loss of hope, purpose, & fears death
Mahler Object relations: Process of separation of the infant from maternal/primary caregiver
The three object relation phases Phase 1: Autism Phase 2: Symbiosis Phase 3: Separation- individuation
Birth to 1 month (Mahler) Autism:
1 to 5 months (Mahler) Symbiosis
5 to 36 months (Mahler) Separation - individuation
Four sub phases of phase 3 (Mahler) Differentiation, Practicing, Rapprochement, & Consolidation
5 to 10 months (subphase of phase 3- Mahler) Differentiation
10 to 16 months (subphase of phase 3 Mahler) Practicing
16 to 24 months (subphase of phase 3 Mahler) Rapprochement
24 - 36 months (subphase of phase 3 Mahler) Consolidation
Kohlberg Moral Development
Three major levels of moral development Preconventiional, Conventional, & Postconventional
Preconventional (Kohlberg) 4 to 10 years
Conventional (Kohlberg) 10-13 to adulthood
Postconventional (Kohlberg)
Created by: mwhalley