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bi 232 Exam 1

all inclusive of exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Peripheral Nervous system Somatic and Autonomic, Sensory and Motor, Basically everything in the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord
Somatic is... voluntary and controls the skeletal muscles
autonomic is... involuntary and controls the smooth muscles
Sensory pns is... input and to the brain
motor pns is... output and moving away from the brain
Diaphragm rhyme Phrenic nerve. Cervical plexus. c3 c4 c5 keep the diaphragm alive
lumbar plexus feeds nerves to... front of the leg
cervical plexus feeds nerves to... shoulder and diaphragm
sacral plexus feeds nerves to... back of the leg and butt
brachial plexus feeds nerves to... arm and armpit and shoulder
cervical nerves to worry about phrenic
brachial nerves to worry about radial, median, ulnar, musculocutaneous, axillary
lumbar nerves to worry about femoral and obturator
sacral nerves to worry about sciatic, tibial, common fibular, pudendal
ascending nerve characteristics from body to brain, sensory
descending nerve characteristics from the brain to the body, motor
Reflex steps (6) 1. stimulus 2. sensor/receptor 3. sensory neuron 4. area of spinal cord/plexus 5. motor neuron 6. effector (muscle)
interneurons they go up and down the spine, across the spine, sends messages to the brain (learning), antagonist inhibition (tells the opposite muscle to relax)
ipsi-lateral reflex occurs on same side as stimulus
contralateral when reflex occurs on opposite side of stimulus
meninges function surround the cns, protects and cushions
cerebral-spinal fluid shock absorbers
spinal tap location lumbar (more space to work inside of
Brain Stem Medulla oblongata, Pons
Diencephalon hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus
cerebrum parietal lobe, frontal lobe, occiptial lobe, temporal lobe
cerebellum abor vitea, vermis
medulla oblongata basic life support, breathing, heart
pons means bridge, connects the brain stem to the rest of the brain or "high brain", regulates breathing
thalamus relay center, router, switchboard. Directs traffic - sorts the messages and gets them from the spine to the parts of brain.
hypothalamus homeostasis
epithalamus makes cerebral spinal fluid
cerebral spinal fluid cushions, blood brain barrier
Meninges anatomy Dura mater (outermost), arachnoid mater (middle), pia mater (innermost).
Subarachnoid space place where the csf lies
csf pathway 1. epithalamus. 2. fill ventricles (center of brain). 3. travel through "cerebral aqueduct". 4. central canal. 5. leaks from the medularis conas into subarachnoid space of spine. 6. up the outside of spine to outside the brain. 7. out the arachnoid villi.
cerebellum function coordination or balance
mesencephalon corpara quadrigemina (reflexes visual and audio) rubro area (red nucleus or muscle tone, tells muscles to keep going) Ras (awareness or consciences)
occipital lobe funcion visual
temporal lobe function nose and hearing
parietal lobe function sensory, understanding words (wernickes)
frontal lobe function motor functions, recognition (thinking and personality, making words (brocas areas)
dominant hemisphere the location of the Broca's area
cns 1 olfactory, smell, sensory
cns 2 optic, sight, sensory
cns 3 oculomotor, moves eye, motor
cns 4 trochlear, moves eye, motor
cns 5 trigeminal, jaws and teeth, both
cns 6 abducens, moves eye, motor
cns 7 facial, face and expressions, both
cns 8 vestbulo cochlea, hearing and balance, sensory
cns 9 glossopharngeal, tongue throat, both
cns 10 vasus, heart/guts, both
cns 11 accessory, neck muscles, motor
cns 12 hypoglossal, throat, motor
Mirror nerve location Frontal Lobe, Pre-motor cortex, (planning movement
Mirror nerve function lack of empathy
Limbic system parts and funtion Parts: Hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus. Function: Emotional system, keeps you from doing something stupid. Memory
Muscles the ANS talks to Involuntary
ANS is controlled by limbic system: Sympathatic or Parasympathetic
Sympathetic wire location thoraco-Lumbar region
Parasympathetic wire locations cranial-sacral region
Sympathetic characteristics fight or flight
parasympathetic charasteristics rest and digest
sympathetic neuron charasteristics short 1st neuron, long 2nd neuron or short pregangleonic fiber and long post ganglionic fiber
parasympathetic neuron charasteristics long 1st neuron, short 2nd neuron or long pre-gangleonic fiber and short post-ganglionic fiber
sympathetic neurotransmitters Acetylocholine from pre to post and epinephrine (adreneline) to organ
Parasympathetic neurotransmitters acetelocholine from pre to post and to organ
Ascending tracts spino-cerebellum, spino-thalamic, dorsal columns.
decending tracts cortisospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal
spino cerebellar doesn't cross, balance
spino thalmic pain and temp, crosses at spine and then goes up
dorsal columns touch, crosses at the medula oblongatta
cortisospinal voluntary motor, crosses at medula oblongatta
rubrospinal muscle tone (keeping your back straight so you don't fall over), crosses at the medula obsongatta
reticulospinal muscle tone (keeping your back straight so you don't fall over), crosses at the medula obsongatta
sympathetic effects on pupils get big to see everything
sympathetic effects on tear glands not working, energy directed else where
sympathetic effects on sweat glands dripping. super active
sympathetic effects on arrector pili stimulates them...goosebumps
sympathetic effects on blood vessels to skin constricts...sends the blood elsewhere like muscles
sympathetic effects on blood vessels to skeletal muscles floods them so you can fight or flight
sympathetic effects on blood vessels to lungs floods them so you can fight or flight
sympathetic effects on blood vessels to digestive organs constricts. Shuts down digestive organs
sympathetic effects on blood vessels to kidneys constricts. Shuts down urinary tracts
sympathetic effects on blood vessels to brain normal.
sympathetic effects on heart makes heart beat faster to circulate more blood
sympathetic effects on airways opens up wider
sympathetic effects on digeestive activity shuts the activity down
sympathetic effects on digestive glands stops their secretions
sympathetic effects on liver increases activity. to speed up energy releases
sympathetic effects on skeletal muscles super activates them...preps them for activity
sympathetic effects on adipose tissue no affect...doesn't create new tissue
sympathetic effects on kidney stops it...
sympathetic effects on urinary bladder stops it...energy gets placed elsewhere
sympathetic effects on male reproductive organs required for sexual gratification but must have a parasympathetic reaction first
sympathetic effects on female reproductive organs required for sexual gratification but must have a parasympathetic reaction first
parasympathetic effects on pupils get smaller, normal
parasympathetic effects on tear glands normal function
parasympathetic effects on sweat glands normal or less sweating
parasympathetic effects on arrector pili normal function or less activity
parasympathetic effects on blood vessels to skinn normal adequate blood flow to skin (healthy glow)
parasympathetic effects on blood vessels to skeletal muscles normal blood flow
parasympathetic effects on blood vessels to lungs normal blood flow
parasympathetic effects on blood vessels to to digestive organs more blood flow and more activity
parasympathetic effects on blood vessels to kidneys more blood flow normal activity
parasympathetic effects on blood vessels to brain normal activity
parasympathetic effects on heart normal activity
parasympathetic effects on airways normal activity
parasympathetic effects on digestive activity increased activity (rest and digest
parasympathetic effects on digestive glands increased activity
parasympathetic effects on liver normal activity
parasympathetic effects on skeletal muscles normal activity
parasympathetic effects on adipose tissue when it is made
parasympathetic effects on kidney function normal increased activity
parasympathetic effects on urinary bladder normal activity
parasympathetic effects on male reproductive system only way to get aroused
Created by: boone.reavis