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Terminiology related to heredity and genetics

Genetics the scientific study of heredity
Law of Dominance one of the Laws of Heredity that states: 1. all traits have genes from two parents, 2. if the genes are alike, the offspring will inherit that trait, and 3. if the genes are opposite, the offspring will inherit one trait while the other is “hidden”
dominant a trait that always shows up in the organism when the allele for that trait is present; it “masks” the recessive trait
recessive a trait that is masked when the dominant form of that allele is present
purebred having two copies of the same allele for a particular trait.
hybrid having two different copies of the alleles for a particular trait (one dominant and one recessive trait)
allele the different forms of a gene
trait a characteristic that an organism can pass onto its offspring through genes
gene a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetic engineering the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism in order to produce an organism with desired traits
Adenine a nucleotide that pairs with Thymine to make up the “rungs” of the DNA ladder
Thymine a nucleotide that pairs with Adenine to make up the “rungs” of the DNA ladder
Guanine a nucleotide that pairs with Cytosine to make up the “rungs” of the DNA ladder
Cytosine a nucleotide that pairs with Guanine to make up the “rungs” of the DNA ladder
inheritable traits traits that are passed on from the parent generation to any offspring they have by genes
true breeding during Mendel’s experiments, when the plants self-pollinate, all their offspring were of the same variety
P generation true breeding parents
F1 generation (first filial) offspring of the P generation
F2 generation (second filial)offspring from the self-pollination of the F1 hybrids.
Law of Segregation one of the Laws of Heredity that state: two alleles for each trait separate during gamete production
genotype a combination of two alleles (i.e. – Bb, BB, bb)
homozygous a combination of two of the same allele for a given trait (i.e. – BB,bb)
heterozygous a combination of two different alleles for a given (i.e.-Bb)
phenotype the physical characteristics of an organism; tells what we see (brown hair, blue eyes, etc.)
Punnett Square an abstract tool used by scientists to show all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from genetic crosses
probability the likelihood that a particular event will occur
incomplete dominance a form of dominance where the heterozygous individual shows a blend of traits and is represented by two capital letters (RW = pink); in humans, hair, eye, and skin color are controlled by this type of dominance
codominance a form of dominance where the heterozygous individual shows both traits (IRIW = red and white); in humans, blood type is controlled by this type of dominance
meiosis the division of the nucleus that occurs in gametes (sex cells); causes them to have half the number of chromosomes of the body cells of that organism. There are two phases
XX the female genotype in humans
XY the male genotype in humans
karyotype the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
Down Syndrome a genetic disorder in humans that is caused by having 3 copies of the chromosome number 21(Trisomy 21
mutation a change in a gene or chromosome
gene mutation a change in a gene; occurs in body cells and is not passed onto the offspring (i.e. skin cancer)
chromosome mutation a change in a chromosome; occurs during meiosis and is passed onto the offspring (i.e. Down Syndrome)
nondisjunction a form of chromosome mutation where the chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis, and the resulting offspring will have fewer or more chromosomes
selective breeding the choosing of two individuals with desirable traits and breeding them together in hopes that their offspring will also have those desirable traits (i.e. purebred dogs and cats)
biotechnology the manipulation (as through genetic engineering) of living organisms or their components to produce useful, usually commercial, products
Created by: barbzabel7