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Ecology the study of how living things interact with each other
population all the members of one species in a given area in a given time
community all the populations in a given area in a given time
ecosystem including all living things and non living things in an area in a given time
biosphere all the ecosystems of earth and how they interact with each other .every where life exists
2 main factors for the continuation of an ecosystem 1. constant source of energy 2. cycling of materials
what is a constant source of energy? sun powers all of the organisms
what is cycling of materials between living and non living things there is cycling of certain substances, like photosynthesis and respiration
abiotic factors non living parts of an ecosystem
examples of abiotic factors soil, water, temperature, light and air, minerals
limiting factors non living factors that limit the growth of a population of an ecosystem. these factors determine what can and can not live in an ecosystem
biotic factors living organisms in an ecosystem
examples of biotic factors animals, flowers, humans and plants
producers organisms that make their own food. for example autotrophs and chemotrophs
autotrophs producers that produce their food by using energy from the sun to carry out photosynthesis
chemotrophs producers that produce their food by using energy from chemical reactions to carry out chemosynthesis
consumers organisms that take in food
herbivores consumer that only eats producers
carnivore consumers that eat other consumers
preditor (carnivore) an animal that hunts, kills and eats its prey
scavenger (carnivore) organism that eats dead animals that have already been killed by someone else.
omnivores a consumer that eats producers and consumers (human)
decomposers organism that feed off dead and decaying matter
saprophyte a plant decomposer
symbiotic relationship when two organisms of different species have a close association
commensalism when one organism benefits, but the other one isn't harmed ex: shark and remora
mutualism both organisms benefit
parasitism one organism benefits (parasite), while the other is harmed (host)
food chain the path that energy takes through an ecosystem
producer in food chain autotroph
primary consumers are always herbivores
secondary consumers carnivores
consumers in a food chain organisms that eat the secondary consumers
decomposers breaks down dead and decaying matter, must be present in all levels of food chain
food web shows many interconnecting food chains because most organisms eat more than one type of food
pyramid of energy only 10 percent of the energy at each level gets passed along
pyramid of biomass the amount of living matter decreases as you go along the food chain
carrying capacity the maximum number of organisms that an ecosystem can support
competition occurs when organisms have a struggle for limiting factors, organisms that are best adaptable will survive
habitat where an organism lives
niche the role/job an organism has in its ecosystem, if two species occupy the same niche, there will be competition
why would a foreign invader reproduce in an ecosystem a foreign invader has no natural enemies and so it would reproduce
carbon/oxygen cycle CO2 and O2 are cycled because of the process of respiration and photosynthesis
water cycle H2O evaporates -transporation If water molecules hit the clouds - condensation, then H2O comes back down as precipitation
Nitrogyn Cycle Nytrogen in the air is not usable, so bacteria in the ground converts the nitrogen into a usable form for plants
Human requirements in ecology nutritious food, clean water, shelter for living and air that is not polluted
renewable resources something that can be replaced in a reasonable amount of time
examples of renewable resources sunlight, H2O and plants and animals
How can renewable resources become non renewable by over cropping, over grazing, over hunting and over fishing
non renewable resources can not be replaced in a reasonable amount of time
examples of non renewable resources 1-fossil fuels=coal, oil, petroleum and gasoline 2-minerals=iron, aluminum and tin
Reduce try to use less or none at all
reuse use dishes, glasses, towels and silverware instead of plastic and paper
recycle plastic, glass, metal, paper
human population growth human population is not stable. It grows rapidly due to medical advances, knowledge and education
water polution causes H2O to be dirty for drinking, washing and/or recreation
pollutant any substance that makes something dirty for a living
example of H2O pollutants pesticides, sewages, pcbs, and heat
air pollution causes air to be dirty for breathing
example of air pollutants CO2, carbon monoxide, soot, smog, ash, smoke, nitrogen, and sulfur oxyde
soil pollution makes it difficult to grow healthy crops and also for recreation
examples of soil pollution solid wastes, pesticides, and chemicals
thermal pollution due to factories cooling their machines, the water nearby in the lakes gets warmer and causes some organisms to die
green house effect/ global warming too much CO2 in the air - global warming - ice caps melting and flooding
what causes the increase in CO2 levels burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and increase in technology
acid rain caused by sulfur and nitrogen oxides which are released from factories and car exhaust.
Ozone layer depletion chemicals called cfcs from aerosol cans have been causing holes in the ozone layer.
what are the effects of ozone layer depletion more uv rays can pass through which causes an increase in skin and eye cancer
direct harvesting removing an organism from its habitat.
poaching illegally trapping of organisms
importation of species bringing in a foreign species into a native land
poor land management rapid growth of cities has increased the amount of land available for architecture
Created by: Rrottenberg